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Full text of "An essay towards a natural history of the corallines, and other marine productions of the like kind, commonly found on the coasts of Great Britain and Ireland. To which is added the description of a large marine polype taken near the North Pole, by the whale-fishers, in the summer 1753 .."

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I 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 




LIBRARY 

OF THE 



)MP. 



MUSEUM OF COIWPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 

.lis 







BOCGHT WITH 

THE BEQUEST OF 
JAMES BROWN, 

OF WATEKTOWN. 







^y^-^// r^//^' Jr//r^^ 



MAR 22 1923 



/ 



A N 



ESSAY 



TOWARDS a' " ' 

^ (■■(\]" 



NATURAL HISTORY 

O F T H E 

CORALLINES, 

AND OTHER 

Marine Productions of the like Kind, 

Commonly found 
On the Coafts of Great Britain and Ireland. 

To which is added 

The Description of a large MARINE POLYPE taken 
near the North Pole, by the Whale- fifliers, in the Summer 17^3. 

By JOHN ELLIS, F. R. S. 



LONDON: 

Printed for the Author; 

And Sold by A. Millar, in the Strand; J. and J. Rivington, 
in St. Pauls Church-Tard ; and R. and J. Dodsle t, in Pali-Mall. 

M.DCC.LV. 






lr»u*i.U>Mad.oi Ooml^.'^ooU 




T O 



HER ROYAL HIGHNESS 



THE 

Princefs Dowager of WALES. 




MADAM, 

N I MA TED by the Attention 
Your Royal Highnefs conde- 
fcended to beftow, on many of 
the Subftances defcribed in the 
enfuingPages, Ihave purfued my 
Enquiries concerning them, with an Ardour 
that only fuch an Influence could inlpire. 

The minuteft Works of Creation are not 
always the leaft wonderful : And though 
the Element, of which thefe are Natives, 

a 2 prohibits 



iv DEDICATION. 

prohibits an exa(!^ Enquiry, yet enough of 
Order, Contrivance, and Regularity, ap- 
pear in their Stru6lure, to convince us, 
they are the Workmanfliip of that Almighty 
Power, whom, exalted as you are in Dig- 
nity of Sentiment, as well as Station, you 
think it your highell Honour to reverence 
and obey. 

As every Attempt, however humble, to 
explore the Works of the Moft High, and 
to manifeft his Care and Kindnefs to the 
whole Creation, meets with your Appro- 
bation, accept, Moft lUuftrious Princess, 
with a favourable Afpe6l:, theie Endea- 
vours ,• and, at the lame time, my fervent 
Prayers, That you may long continue aBlelT- 
ing to thefe Kingdoms, and your Royal Oif- 
fpring to late Pofterity. I am, with the ut- 
moft Refpecil:, 

Tour Royal Highnefs's 

Mofl obedient and 

London, Dec. ,5, yj/^y^ humhk SeYvant , 

John Ellis. 




INTRODUCTION. 




HAT the Reader is to exped: in this EfTay, 
§ will perhaps be learned, with moft Satis- 
fadion, from the following Account, of the 
Author's Inducements to engage in fach 
Difquifitions, the Difficulties that attended 
them, and the various Succefs. 

In the Autumn of the Year 1751, I received a curious 
Colledion of Sea-plants and Corallines from the Jfland of 
Anglefey^ in North Wales^ and another from Dublin, In 
order to preferve fome Specimens of the moft rare Kinds, 
particularly thofe that were remarkable for their Colours, I 
expanded them on Paper in frefh Water, laying out their 
fine Ramifications with fome Exadnefs ; for which Method, 
with many ufeful Hints in Botany, 1 am indebted to that 
excellent Botanift Mr. Buttner^ of Berlin. 

Thefe, when properly dried, I difpofed on thin Boards 
covered with clean white Paper, in fuch a manner as to 

form 



vi Introduction. 

form a kind of Landfcape, making ufc of two or three Sorts 
of the Ulva marina^ or Sea-Liverwort of different Colours, 
in defigning a Variety of Hills, Dales, and Rocks, which 
made a proper Ground-work and Keeping for the little 
Trees, which the expanded Sea>plants and Corallines not 
unaptly reprefented. 

My ingenious and Reverend Friend Dodor Stephen Hales, 
paying me a Viiit, was pleafed to exprefs great Pleafure in 
viewing thefe natural lively Landfcapes ; and deflred me to 
make fome of the fame Kind for her Royal Highnefs the 
Princefs Dowager of WaleSy that the young Princefles might 
amufe themfelves, in difpofing thefe beautiful Produdions in 
the like pidurefque Manner. And for that Purpofe, further 
requefted me, to colled all the Varieties our Sea-coafts af- 
forded J which I did, by the Help of my worthy Friend 
George Shehocke Efquire, Secretary to the Poftmafter-general, 
and fome of my Acquaintance in Irela?td. 

I had the Honour, through my Reverend Friend, to pre- 
fent fome Pieces of this Kind to her Royal Highnefs, who 
was pleafed to accept them with her ufual Condefcenfion. 

The great Variety, that came through my Hands, deter- 
mined me to feparate all the different Species, and to difpofe 
them in proper Claffes. To affift me in this Part of my La- 
bour, I had Recourfe to the learned Ray^ who, in his Sy- 
nopjis Stirpiu??i Britajinicarum, has given the beft Account 
we have yet had of thefe Produdions, as well as of the in- 
digenous Plants of Great Britain and Ireland. 

In order to diftinguifli their proper Charaders with the 
greater Accuracy, I found it neceffary to examine them in 
the Microfcope ; by which I foon difcovered, that they dif- 
fered not lefs from each other, in relped to their Form, than 

they 



Introduction. vii 

they did in regard to their Texture ; and that, in many of 
them, this Texture was fuch, as feemed to indicate their be- 
ing more of an animal, than vegetable Nature. 

This put me on feparating fuch as had thefe apparent In- 
dications, from thofe, which, from their Form of growing, 
I ftill took to be Sea-plants ; placing thofe in a third Clals, 
which feemed to partake of the Nature of both. 

The firft Divilion comprehended all thofe, that were evi- 
dently the Nidus s^ or Cells of Animals. 

The fecond took in the curioufly branched Corallines. 

The laft confifted of the ftony articulated Corallines and 
Keratophyta, 

Thefe were regularly difpofed in four Pidures^ which I 
had the Honour to produce before the Royal Society, about 
ytine 1752, with a Defcription of their Contents, as they 
then appeared to me. 

As I was convinced, from my own Obfervations of the 
Subjeds themfelves, that feveral, which had hitherto been 
confidered by Naturalifts, as Marine Vegetables, were in 
Reality of animal Produdlion : So from the Opinions of fe- 
veral Gentlemen then prefent, my Sufpicions were increafed, 
that others likewife, which I had taken for Vegetables, 
might in Reality be of an animal Nature. 

To determine how far thefe Sufpicions were jufl, it 
feemed the moft expedient to examine the Subje(5ls, when 
recent, with Attention. And accordingly, in Aiigujt 1752, 
I went to the Ifland of Sheppey^ on the Coaft of Kent ; and 
took with me Mr. Brooki?tg^ a celebrated Painter of Sea- 
pieces, to make the proper Drawings for me. Here we had 

an 



viii Introduction. 

an Opportunity of feeing thefe difputed Beings called branched 
Corallines, alive in Sea-water, by the Help of a very com- 
niodious Microfcope, of Mr. Cuff's the Optician in Fleetjireety 
which I had altered for that Purpofe ; and was fully con- 
vinced, that thefe apparent Plants were ramified Animals, 
in their proper Skins or Cafes, not loco-motive, but fixed to 
Shells of Oyfters, Muffels, &€. and to Vucuss. 

The firft Coralline that occurred to me, was that which 
is expreffed in Plate II. at N°. 3. A Part of it, as it ap- 
peared aHve, is defcribed magnified at Letter A: This, to- 
gether with other Proofs, that then occurred, induced me to 
withdraw the Paper I had laid before the Royal Society ; 
and to purfue with Attention my Enquiries concerning this 
Subjedl ; both with a View to my own Satisfadion, as well as 
to afford thofe, who yet doubted, the Means of ample Con- 
vidion. 

In the Beginning o^ Jum laft, 1754, I prevailed on Mr. 
Eh?'et, a Gentleman univerfally known to the learned Bota- 
nifts of Europe, for his exquifite Manner of defigning and 
painting Plants and Flowers, to accompany me to the Sea- 
fide at Brighthelmfione, in Stiffex ; there to draw from Na- 
ture, whatever the Microfcope prefented him of thefe extra- 
ordinary Beings. An Account of this Journey, with his cu- 
rious Drawings, the Royal Society have honoured with their 
Acceptance. Here we faw, amongft others, the Coralline, 
N^ 14. Plate IX. Letter b, with all its minute capillary 
Branches expanded. 

Letter C, fliews one of thefe Branches magnified, as it 
appeared in the Sea-water through the Microfcope, with irs 
Polypes united together, repofing in their Sockets, and with 
their Arms extended. 

We 



Introduction. 

We had alfo an Opportunity of feeing thofe Corallines in 
Motion, whofe Polypes are contained in Cups, fupportcd by 
a long Stem that appears full of Rings, or as if they were 
tvvifted in Form of a Screw (See Fig. C, Plate Xil). In 
the Middle of the tranfparent Stems or Cafes, we could eafily 
diftinguilli the Thread-like tender Part of the Animal, united 
to the Bottom of each Polype. 

As we were obferving this, we accidentally difcovered the 
Figure of the Polype, that fpreads its Cells ov^r Fucuss^ and 
other Marine Subftances. The Figures of the Cells are ex- 
prefled in Plate XXIX, at Letter D. And the Animal in 
its Cell at Z) I. 

On feveral Parts of thefe CoraUines there are little Bodies, 
which, through the Microfcope, appear to be fo many Ve- 
ficles or Bladders : To the Ufe of thefe I was altogether a 
Stranger till this Journey : But now I difcovered that they 
were Matrices^ or Habitations of young Polypes, which are 
produced here and there, on the Sides of the Parent, as in 
the Frefh-water Polype, only in the marine ones they are 
protected with this veficular Covering. Thefe Veficles ap- 
pearing at a certain Seafon of the Year, according to the 
different Species of Corallines, and then falling off, like the 
Bloffoms or Seeds of Plants, has made fome curious Perfons, 
who have not had an Opportunity of feeii^.g the Animals alive 
in the Veficles, conclude them to be the Seed-veflels of Plants ; 
and into this Miftake I was led myfelf, in the Account laid 
before the Royal Society in 1752. In which Account I had 
taken fome Pains to point out the great Similitude between 
the Veficles, and denticulated Appearance of fome of thefe 
Corallines ; and the Tooth-fhaped Leaves and Seed-veffels 
of fome Species of Land-moffes, particularly of the Hypnum 

b and 



IX 



X Introduction. 

and Bryum, One of which Corallines is exhibited at B, 
Plate III. and another at 5, Plate V. 

And for want of examining thefe Corallines, as I may fay, 
alive in their proper Element the Sea-water, others likewife 
had formed erroneous Opinions concerning them, as well as 
myfelf : Some imagining thefe little Veficles only to ferve as 
fwimming Bladders, like thofe in the Acinaria or Gulph- 
weed, and the ^ercus Marina or Sea-Oak. 

There are two of thefe Veficles, with the larger Polypes 
in them expreffed, magnified near the Middle of the Fig. J, 
in Plate V. 

Thofe are called Denticles, that look like Teeth, and are 
placed oppofite to each other on the Sides of the Stem and 
Branch of the fame Figure. 

Thefe larger Polypes are united below by a tender thread- 
dy Line, to the flefhy Part that occupies the Middle of the 
whole Coralline. 

In fome Inftances, we may obferve, that thefe Animals 
are wrapt quite round in their Veficles, during their Embryo 
State, like thofe in Plate XI. Fig. C. As thefe advance in 
Size, and grow towards Maturity, the Top of the Veficle 
begins to open, the Animal ftretches itfelf out, and dif- 
plays its Arms about in Search of Food ; and when it is in 
the leafl: difturbed, it fuddenly contrads itfelf to the Bottom 
of the Veficle, which clofes after it at the Top. 

Some Species of Corallines have little elaftic Opercula or 
Covers to their Veficles, to fecure the Mouth or Entrance 
of the Veficle upon the Animal's Retreat to the Bottom of it. 



as in Plate III. Fig. B, 



Thefe 



Introduction. 

Thefe veficulary Polypes, as foon as they arrive at Matu- 
rity fall off, and with them moft of the Veiicles difappear. 

In fome of the celliferoiis Corallines, which branch out 
in an elegant Manner, we obferve, that the fmall Polypes in 
the Cells acquire a te'ftaceous Covering, like little Snails, as 
at Fig. E and By in Plate XVIII. and at Fig. A, in Plate 
XIX. 

Thefe little Shell-fifh, we may fuppofe, grow larger ; and, 
in their mature State, may depolite on Rocks, Fucus s^ and 
Shells, fuch curioufly implicated Matrices or Ovaries, which, 
in time, may unfold and extend themfelves into thofe many 
beautiful Tree- like Forms that we find them in. 

The Matrices of fome Kind of Shell-fifh are fo remark- 
able for their Plant-like Form, that many People have taken 
them for Vegetables at fir ft Sight. See Fig. «, Plate XXXIII. 

In order therefore to be more fully fatisfied, in refpe£l to 
the Nature of a Species of Beings hitherto almoft unknown, 
I took a Journey in Auguft laft 1754, along the Northern 
Shore of the County of Kent^ in Company with Dodor Oeder^ 
a very curious and ingenious Phyfician, Profeffor of Botany 
to the King of Dentnarh 

At Whitjlahhy I employed fome Fifhermen to colled: 
what Varieties they could of thefe fubmarine Bodies. Among 
many other things they brought me feveral irregular Pieces 
of a flefhy Subftance, fticking to Shells, called by them, 
Deadman's Toes. It is defcribed in Ray\ Sy?20pfis, by the 
Name of Alcyonium ramofo'digitatiim ?mlle afterifcis imdiqua- 
que ornatmn. A fmall Piece of it is reprefented in its natu- 
ral Form, at Letter ^, Plate XXXII. and a Part of it mag- 
nified at Letter A. 

b 2 Thefe 



XII 



Introduction. 

Thefe the Fifhermeii brought me, with the other Sea- 
Produ6lions, in Buckets of Sea-water ; we left them undi- 
fturbed for fome time, till the Polypes had extended them- 
felves out of their ftarry Cells, in which their Tails, were fix- 
ed ; and then took them fuddenly out of the Salt-water, and 
inftantly plunged tliem into Brandy, whereby many of their 
Bodies were kept from Ihrivelling up, and ihrinking back 
into their flarry Retreats. By this Means I preferved not 
only thefe, but feveral other Marine Produdions, with their 
Animals, in their natural Form ; particularly the Alcyoiiium^ 
like the Lobes of the Lungs, defcribed Plate XVII. at ^, 
called by the Fifhermen the Sea Fig, from its having many 
yellow Seed-like Particles in the Infide. The Outfide of 
this, when magnified, appeared full of fmall Stars, as de- 
fcribed at 5, C, and I), in the fame Plate. 

It was here I firft obferved the Animal alive in the Sea- 
briftle Coralline, as defcribed at Plate XL Letter A. And 
that of the Herring-bone Coralline, at Plate X. Letter A ; 
with thofe on the branched tubulary Coralline, Plate XVII. 
Letter A^ where they are magnified. Here we faw the Ani- 
mals on the Celliferous Coralhne, as magnified in Plate XX. 
in Letter C. Several of thefe Animals I found well preferved 
in the Spirits after my Return, notwithftanding they were 
crouded into the Bottle with many other Sorts of a coarfer 
Texture, fuch as Star-fifh, Alcyoniums on Shells, &^c. 

Finding upon my Arrival, that I could diftinguifh the 
true natural Appearance of many Species of Corallines, with 
their Animals, by being preferved in Spirits, I thought it 
might be fatisfadory to know the Method I had fallen upon 
for this Purpofe ; and, accordingly, recommend the follow- 
ing to thofe, who are defirous of obtaining Varieties of thefe 

Corallines,, 



Introduction, xiii 

Corallines, and other Sea-produdions, from their Friends on 
the Sca-coafts, in great Perfedion. 

The greatefl Variety of CoralHnes are to be found on 
what are generally called Rock-Oyfters, or upon thofe Beds 
of Oyfters that have been for fome time difufed or negkded» 
Upon fuch I have feen them grow, as it were in little Groves, 
As foon as tlie Fifhermen take thefe Oyftcrs out of the Sea, 
let them immediately put them into Buckets of Sea- water y 
for the Animals are of fo tender a Nature, that the Air foon 
fhrivels them up : As foon as they can conveniently, let them 
be brought on Shore, and ftripped off the Shells with a 
Pair of Pincers, taking hold of them near where they adhere 
to the Shells : Then put them gently into white earthens 
Plates full of clear Sea-water ; and in about an Hour, or 
perhaps lefs, they will begin to recover from this rough Treat- 
ment ; and many of the Animals will begin to extend them- 
felves ; this you may obferve by a magnifying Glafs of about 
Two Inches Focus. Thofe that you perceive extended, and 
alive, may be fuddenly taken out with the Pincers, and in- 
ftantly immerfed in any kind of Spirits, which you muft have 
by you in an open Veffel for that Purpofe. This will fix the 
Animals in fuch a Manner, that, when they are put into 
wide-mouthed ftrong Glafs- Bottles full of the fame Spirits, 
and well corked, many Varieties may be fent together to a 
great Diftance, without Prejudice to the Figure of the Ani- 
mals, as I have experienced. 

Or this Method may be tried ; that is, to place the Oyflers 
with the Corallines on them, in broad earthen or wooden 
Veffels, with as much Sea-water over them as will barely co- 
ver them ; let them reft an Hour, and then pour boiling; 
Water gendy by the Side of the Veffel, to about the fame 
Quantity that there was of cold Water in the V^effels. 

Immediately 



xiv Introduction. 

Immediately afterwards pluck the Corallines off the Shells, 
and put them in Bottles of Spirits as before. When they 
are received, in order to be examined, you muft provide 
long narrow Bottles of Chryftal-glafs to put the different 
Sorts in ; thefe mufl: have wide Mouths, and be filled with 
the cleareft Spirits, but not flronger than Proof- Brandy ; 
and of fuch a Diameter as fhall be agreeable to the Focus of 
the Glafs you propofe to examine them by. If thefe Bottles 
are properly flopped to prevent the Spirits evaporating, it 
will be the beft Method I know of keeping thefe extraordi- 
nary Plant-like Animals in a Condition capable of convince- 
ing the moft incredulous of their Nature and Origin. 

It will be neceffary to inform the Curious, that Experi- 
ments of this Kind fucceed beft in warm Weather ; the 
Animals being generally found contrad:ed and torpid during 
the Winter-Seafon. 

The foregoing Obfervations, on the Nature of the Veficu 
latcd and Celliferous Corallines, gave me the firft Hints into 
the Formation of the Keratophyta ; which was the more fa- 
tisfadlory to me, as this Clafs of Beings ftill paffes among very 
fenfible and curious Naturalifts for mere Vegetables, but in- 
crufted over by Accident, like many other Plants, with the 
Nefts of certain Species of Infeds peculiar to fuch particular 
Kind of Plants. 

In the Cabinets of the Curious, we meet with Specimens 
of fome Species of thefe Keratophyta^ fo nearly allied to fome 
of our veficulated Corallines, with large Denticles, that they 
feem to claim an Alliance to both Claffes. One of thefe is 
defcribed in Plate XXVI. at Fig. S. 

The reft of this Clafs of Keratophyta^ I found to corre- 
fpond with the Veficulated and Celliferous Claffes, in fuch 
material Points, as left me no Room to doubt, but that, if 

one 



In'TRODUC'TION. XV 

one was of an animal Nature, which ocular Demonftration 
had already convinced me of, then the other muft be fo too. 

And, I am perfuaded, that whoever compares them to- 
gether, and views attentively the Succeflion ot riiing Tubes, 
that change infeniibly into Ramifications of Cells in the Ke~ 
ratophyton^ and, at the fame time, examines the Structure 
of that Veficulated Coralline, called the Herring-bone Co- 
ralline, Plate X. Fig. a^ &'c. will be of my Opinion. How 
the woody or horny Part of the Stem and Branches are form- 
ed, feems to be the great DifHculty to the curious Enquirer 
to account for, unlefs he is allowed to fuppofe it a Vegetable. 

But, during thefe Obfervations, I fortunately received from 
America^ a curious Specimen of a Sea- Fan, Part of which 
is delineated in Plate XXVI. Fig. C, 0, A ^j which plainly 
demonflrates, that Animals of the Polype-kind are the Fa- 
bricators both of the horny or woody, as well as the calca- 
rious, Covering of this curious and numerous Plant-like Co- 
lony of Infeds. 

The next Clafs, which is the Efchara^ deferves our No- 
tice, and a nicer Scrutiny. There appears a great Probabi- 
lity of fome of thefe being the Matrices or Ovaries of certain 
Species of Shell-fifli, perhaps of the Bivalve Kind. 

So little Enquiry has yet been made into the Origin of 
Shell- fifli, that we feem ftill ignorant of the Production, or 
firft Beginning even of the moft common Sorts among us, 
fuch as Oyfters, Cockles, and MufTels. 

Many of the Akyoiitums^ or thofe mifhapen Sea- produc- 
tions called fo, deferve our Attention. If we could examine 
thefe Bodies carefully, at different Seafons of the Year, I 
do not in the leaft doubt, but they would amply reward our 
Curiofity with a Fund of new Difcoveries, 

As 



Xvi lNTRODUC*riON. 

As we fhall frequently have Occafion, in the enfuing 
Work, to make Ufe of the Term Polype, it will be necef- 
fary to give the Reader, who may be unacquainted with 
thefe Subjecls, fome Idea of it ; which, perhaps, may be 
done the moft fatisfadorily, by defcribing the Frefh-water 
Polype, whofe extraordinary Properties have been fo fully 
enquired into by the ingenious Mr. Trembky^ F. R. S. 

In Plate XXVIII. at Fig. C, is exhibited a long-armed 
Fredi water Polype of this Author: From this Reprefenta- 
tion the Reader will eaflly know what is intended, when we 
fpeak of the Marine Polype, its Arms, Claws, ^c. 

This Animal then is, firft, of a Worm-fliaped Figure, and 
of the fame Kind of tender Subftance with the Horns of the 
common Snail : It adheres by one End, like a Sucker, to 
Water-plants and other Subftances. The other End, which 
is the Head, is furrounded by many Arms or Feeders, placed 
like Rays round a Centre ; this Centre is its Mouth \ and 
with thefe tender Arms, which are capable of great Exten- 
fion, particularly in this Species, it felzes minute Worms, 
and various Kinds of Water-Infefts, and brings them to its 
Mouth ; and often fwallows Bodies larger than itfelf ; hav- 
inof a furprizing Property of extending its Mouth wider, in 
proportion, than any other Animal, After its Food is di- 
o-efled in its Stomach, it returns the Remains of the Animals 
it feeds on through its Mouth again, having no other ob- 
lervablc Emundtory. 

In a fev/ Days there appear fmall Knobs, or PapiUcBj on 
its Sides : As thefe increafe in Length, litde Fibres are fcen 
riiina out ot the Circumlerence of their Heads, as in the Pa- 
rent Animal, which Fibres, they foon begin to ufe, for the 
Purpofe of procuring NouriiEment, &'c. When thefe are 

arrived 



Introduction. xvii 

arrived at mature Size, they fend out other young ones on 
their Sides in the fame Manner ; fo that the Animal branches 
out Into a numerous Offspring, growing out of one common 
Parent, and united together and difpofcd in the Manner re- 
prefented in Plate before-mentioned, Fig. C: Each of thcfe 
provides NouriQiment not only for itfelf, but for the whole 
Society ; an Increafe in the Bulk of one Polype by its feed- 
ing;, tending to an Increafe In the red. 

Thus a Polype of the Frefh-water Kind becomes like a 
Plant branched out, or compofed of many Bodies, each of 
which has this fingular Charadteriftic, that if one of them is 
or cut in Two in the Middle, the feparated Part becomes a 
complete Animal, and foon adhering to fome fixed Bafe, 
like the Parent from whence it was feparated, produces a 
Circle of Arms, a Mouth is formed in the Centre ; it in- 
creafes in Bulk, emits a numerous Progeny^ and is, in every 
Refpedl, as perfedl an Animal as that from which it was fe- 
vered. 

Much after the fame Manner, fo far as hath hitherto been 
difcovered, the marine Polype, however different in rei'pedl 
to Form, is nourifhed, increafes, and may be propagated ; 
having often found, in my Enquiries, that fmall Pieces cut 
off from the living Parent, on account of viewing the fe- 
veral Parts more accurately, foon give Indications, that they 
contain not only the Principles of Life, but likewife the Fa- 
culty of increafing and multiplying into a numerous Iffue. 



T R A N i- 



Translation of the L^//;/ Defcriptions, 
with References to the Contents of 
[ the Plates. 

Veficulated Corallines. 



N^ I. 7/^ESICULATED Coralline, with alternaU 
^ Bra?2ches thinly difpojed, and 'Denticles of a 
cyli?idrical Shape, placed oppojite to o?je another, with open 
and f col loped Apertures, Plate I. page 4, 

N'. 2. Sea Coralli?te, in the Shape of a Fir-tree, or Sea Mofs, 
like a Fern Leaf. Id. ib. 

N°. 3. Coralline with few Branches, having its Denticles al- 
ternately placed, and bearing Veficles that are wri7jkled 
acrofs. Plate II. p. 5. 

N°. 4. Mofs-like Coralli?7e, with its Stem furrounded by many 
minute tufted Branches, and its Denticles placed alter- 
nately. Id. p. 6. 

N". 5. Coralline like a Cyprefs-tree, with blunt Denticles not 
exaSily oppofte, having 7na?iy nmiute loofe Branches proceed- 
i?ig from its Ste?n, and bearing Vefcles with two Poi?Jts. 
Plate III. p. 7. 

N°. 6. Trailing mojfy Coralline, havi7ig very fender Stalks 
, with oppofte Denticles. Id. p. 8. 

c 2 . N°. 7. 



CONTENTS. 

N'. 7. Small feathered Coralline^ with white^ tender, and 
oppofte De?tticleSj bearing Vefides refembling the opening 
Flonxiers of the Lily or Po}negranate, Plate IV. p. 8. 

N°. 8. Little creeping Coralli?iey having but few Branches, 
afid the Denticles united in Pairs. Plate V. p. 9. 

N'. 9. Vefciilated Coralline, with a fliff indei^ted Stem end- 
ing in a 'Tuft of forked Branches at the Top, and with De?t~ 
tides lying flat upon the Branches. Id. p. 10. 

N'^. 10.- EreSl pennated Coralline, with Tienticles lying flat 
on the Branches, refembling Spleenwort or Polypody, Plate 
VI. p. II. 

N°. 1 1 . Moffy Coralline, with its Tufts and Branches bent 
like a Sickle. Plate VII. p. 12. 

N**. 12. leathered and podded Coralline, with Denticles like 
the Bloffo7ns of the Lily of the Valley. Plate VII. p. 1 3. 

N^. 13. Coralline, with Sickle-fhaped feathered Branches, 
refembling the Feathers of a Pheafanis Tail, with Knobs 
on its Stems. Plate VIII. p. t 4.. 

N°. 1 4. Coralline refemblifig the Horns of a Lobfter, and Co- 
ralline full of Hair-like Branches. Plate IX. p. 15. 

N^ 15. BreB pipy Coralline, the f mall Branches difpofed 
on the Stem like a Herring-Bone. Plate X. p. 17. 

N°. 16. Brijlly Coralline joi?ited like a Reed, with little Hair- 
like Bra?iches proceeding alternately fro?n each Joi7it, Plate 
XI. p. 19. 

No. 17. White gelatifjous Coralline, like the Conitrva. or Silk- 
weed, with clear tender "joints, Plate XI. p. 20. 

N^ 18. 



CONTENTS. 

N°. 1 8. Coralline isoith a long trailing^ thread-like^ honi)\ 
and jointed Stem-, bearing Vejides with twijled Footjlalh 
at the Joints of the Branches, Plate XII. p. 21. 

N*. 19. Small creeping Coralline ^ with knobbed and jointed 
Stalks, bearing Vejicles alternately difpofed on the "Joints. 
Plate XII. p. 22. 

N°. 20. Coralline, with Branches bearing Bell-pctped Veficles, 
whofe twijled capillary Footjialks are difpofed in Whirls, like 
the Horfe-tail Tla?it. Plate XIII. p. 23. 

N°. 21. Minute climbi7ig Coralline, bearing Bell- fmped Ve- 
ficles on the "Tops of long, fl£?jder, a?jd twifled Footflalks, 
Plate XIV. p. 24. 

N°. 22. The fmallejl Coralline, with Vefcles difpofed fome- 
times loofely in Branches, and fometi?nes compaEily together 
in Clufiers. Plate XIII. p. 25. 

N°. 23. Small creeping Coralline, with alternate Denticles 
fhaped like the Seed-veffels of the S?iail 'Trefoil, Plate XV. 
p. 26. 

N°. 24. Small climbing Coralli7te, with a jointed Stalk, and 
its Vefcles fo difpofed in Rows on each Joint, that they re- 
femble the Figure of Fans Pipe, Plate XV. p. 27. 

N°. 25. Small creeping Corallijte, with oval- f japed Vefcles 
adhering to Branches, like a Bunch of Grapes. Plate XV. 
p. 27. 

N°. 26. Coralline, like Dodder creeping over Fuel, with very 
fender Branches, which grow oppofte to each other : At the 
Jomts of thefe Branches are fmall oval Vefcles in little 
Clufters together. Plate XIV. p. 28. 

Tubular 



CONTENTS. 

Tubular Corallines. 

N'. I . 'Tubular Coralline^ wrinkled like the Windpipe. Plate 
XVI. p. 30. 

N'. 2. Tubular Coralline, like Oaten Pipes. Plate XVI. p. 3 r. 

N°. 3. Branched Tubular Coralline, with the Infer t ions of the 
Branches twifled Me a Screw. Plate XVI. and XVII. 
P-3I- 

Celliferous Corallines. 

N^. I. Upright Celliferous Coralline, with many Tufts of 
very tender feathered Branches. Plate XVIII. p. 3-^. 

S?tail-bearing Coralline fro?n America and the Mediterra- 
nean Sea. Plate XIX. p. 35. with the upright and crofs 
Sedlion of the Cells at B and C. 

N\ 2. Upright Celliferous Coralline, with feathered Branches 
bearing little teflaceous Balls on the Top, and Figures like 
Birds Heads on the Sides of its Cells. Plate XX. p. '>6. 

N^ ^ Creepifig Celliferous Coralline, with little Root-like 
Tubes proceedi?ig from different Parts of its trailing 
Branches (fome of which are hooked here and there) by 
which it adheres to Fucus's and Shells. Plate XX. p. 37. 

N°. 4. Creepi7ig Celliferous Coralli?te, with brittle ftony 
Branches, and angular fded Cells. Plate XX. p. 3 8. 

N°. 5. ^Ji?nae, upright, and branched, Celliferous Coralline, 
with tunnel-fljaped Cells, united at the Bottom, and ^ro- 
jeBiitg alternately at Top, having very wide Entrances 
which are befet with Hairs on the upper Part, like Eve- 
lafes. PlateXX. p. 38. -^ 

N°. 6. 



CONTENTS. 

N°. 6. Minute branched Ivory-coloured Cel lifer ous Coralline^ 
of a brittle Texture^ and bearing Vefcles with Cells of a tu- 
bular Form, a little bent, placed ahnofl oppofte to each other ^ 
and united together. Plate XXI. p. 39. 

N**. 7. Soft a7id very 7nuch branched Celliferous Coralline, 
with Joints formed like a Coat of Mail. Plate XXI. p. 40. 

N°. 8. Minute Celliferous Coralline, with Bra7tches compofed 
of Pairs of compreffed Cells, which refemble the little Pods 
of the Plant Shepherd's Purfe. Plate XXII. p. 41. 

N°. 9. J^ery minute Celliferous Coralline, with Branches bent 
like a Sickle, and compofed off?igle Cells in the Form of a 
Buirs Horn. Plate XXII. p. 42. 

N^ 10. yery mifiute Celliferous Coralline, with cruflaceom 
Sickle- fjaped Bra?iches, compofed of fngle Cells in the Form 
of Goats Horns, and bearing Vefcles. Plate XXI. p. 42. 

N*. 1 1 . Very mi^tute Celliferous Coralline, rifing from a Tube, 
in fmgle Cells, each in the Form of a Snake. Plate XXII. 

P- 43- 

Articulated Corallines. 

N°. T. Articulated Coralline, with long cylindrical flony 
'Joi?its, dividifig as they extend in a twofold or dichotonious 
Order, having their Surfaces covered on all Sides with Lo- 
zenge-Jhaped Cells, and united together by fmall pliant mem" 
braneous Tubes. Plate XXIII. p. 46. 

N°. 2. Englifh Coralline, or White Coralline of the Shops. 
Plate XXIV. p. 48. 

N°. 3. Slender Englifli trailing Coralline, with port Joints. 
Plate XXIV. p. 49; 

N°. 4^ 



CONTENTS. 

N% 4. EreSi Englifh Coralline^ with Branches clofely pefi- 
7tatedy endijig in the For?n of a Spear ; a?td with 'Joints 
comprejfed at the Sides. Plate XXIV. p. 49. 

N". 5. Coralline with fine Hair- like Bra?iches of a reddiflj Co^ 
lour^ difpofed in a dichotomous Order. Plate XXI\^ p. 50. 

N^ 6. Small white Coralline^ with dichotomous Branches^ and 
horned Joijits growi7ig upon fmall round Fucus's. Plate 
XXIV. p. 50. 

N°. 7. 'Dichotomous Coralline, with thick 'Tufts flanding ereSl 
like a Bird' s Topping, hearing little Seed-like Vefcles, and 
found growing on fmall round Fucus's. Plate XXIV. 

p. 51- 

N°. 8. White Seed-hearing Coral li?ie, ending in very minute 
Hairs. Plate XXIV. p. 51. 

N"*. 9. Minute Coralline, withfJjert Plumes as white as S?iow, 
growing to a fmall round Fucus. Plate XXIV. p. 5 2. 

Two Species of the Articulated Coralline of Jamaica, called 
Opuntia marina, or Indian Fig Corallitie. Plate XXV. 

?• SZ- 

White Rofary or Bead Coralline <?/" Jamaica. Plate XXV. 

P- 54. 

Dichotofnous Tubular Coralline of the Ifle of Wight, with 
the Surface fullof Puflulcs. Plate XXVII. p. 54. 

Keratophyta. 

Pennated Keratophyton of Sardinia, called Sui-Feather. 
Plate XXVI. p. 60. 

2 Reticulated 



CONTENTS. 

Reticulated Keratophyton, called Venus'j Fan. Plate 
XXVI. p. 6i. 

Spo?2gy red Keratophyton. Plate XXVI. p. 64. 

N°. I . Keratophyton fpread like a Fan^ and covered with a 
nsjarted Bark Plate XXVII. p. 67. 

N". 2. Dichotojnous Keratophyton, with its Stalk and Branches 
pghtly comprepd. Plate XXVII. p. 68. 

Efcham. 

N°. I. Foliaceous milleporous Efchara, with tender narrow 
Leaves^ that appear cut off at the Knds-, and covered on 
both Sides with oblong Cells placed alternately. Plat© 
XXVIII. p. 69. 

N°. 2. Spongy Foliaceous Efchara, covered on both Sides with 
arched Cells placed alternately. Plate XXIX. p. 70. 

N**. 3. Sto7iy^ foliaceous^ and milleporous Efchara, growing 
together irregularly here and there, and made up on both 
Sides of Fgg-Jljaped Cells. Plate XXX. p. 71. 

Stag's Horn porous Coral of Imperatus. Plate XXX. 
p. 72. 

Spo?igy Egg-fjaped Cells ^ growing on a Fucus. Plate 
XXX. p. 72. 

Stony Efchara of Imperatus, full of Holes like a Net, 
PlateXXV. p. 72. 

N". 4. Spongy, foliaceous, and ?nilleporous Efchara, compofed 
of Cells of an inverted conical Form, and Hairs abwJ thsir 
Fntrances. Plate XXXI. p. 73. 

d Comfnon 



CONTENTS. 

Common Sea-hfeSis Cells y furrounding a Fucus. Plate 
XXXI. p. 73. 

Common Sea-InfeBs Cells, ^nagnijicd on the Surface of a 
b?'oad¥vicu^. Plate XXIX. p. 73. 

The Polype of thefe Cells defcribed. Plate XXIX. p. 74. 

N-. 5. Efchara, called Englidi fa?idy Millepora, or Sea 
Coat of Mail of Imperatus. Plate XXV. p. 74. 

N". 6. Small cruflaceotis milleporous 'E.{Qh?iXQ., with pipy Cells 
of a faint purple Colour, difpofed in nearly equal and pa- 
rallel Rows. Plate XXVI I. p. 74, 

I^°. 7. Sto?iy millepoi'-ous Efchara, full of Pores, like a Pu- 
mice~fio7u. Plate XXVII. p. 75. 

JEnglifli Corals. 

'N°. T. Sjnall branched Englifh C^/r^/, ^uery near as hard as 
Stme. Plate XXVII. p. 76. 

N°. 2. Chaiy Coral, .growing .in the Form of Lifuerwort^ 
Plate XXVII. p. 76. 

Sponges. 

•N°. I. Branched Engliili %/?g-^. Plate XXXII. p. 80. 
N°. 2. Sponge like Crumb of Bread. Plate XVI. p. 8 a. 

Alcyonia. 

N". r. Alcyonium, with Lobes like the Limgs, Plate XVIL 
p. 82. 



CONTENTS. 

N^ 2. Alcyoniuin of a foft fiefoy Nature^ with its Surface 
full of Stars, Plate XXXII. p. 83. 

N°. 3.- Alcyonium, conf fling of many fmali Bladders con- 
neSied together. Plate XXXII. p. 84. 

DoCfor Lifler'i- Bottle-pjaped Whelk-f:>ell from Virginia. 
Plate XXXITI. p. 85, 

Strings of Matrices or Ovaries of the Virginia TVhell. 
Plate XXXIII. p. 86. 

JSI". 4. KV,^ omysm, or Sea-Cup. Plate XXXII. p. 87. 

N*. 5. Alcyonium, called the knobby and fpongy Fucus by 
Mr. Ray. 

Other Marine Subftances. 

Sea Fucus, lih a Turhys Feather. Plate XXXIII. p. 88« 

Englifli tubtdar fandy Coral. Plate XXXVI. p. 90. 

Maltefe tubular Cor alii fie., with its Scolopendrd s.^ which 
are furnifjjed with two Arms or Tentacles^ and thefe 
doubly J eathered. Plate XXXIV. p. 92. 

A Piece of the coimnon red flony Coral of the Mediterranean 
Sea. Plate XXXV. p. 93. 

A Piece of white tubular Coral from Italy. Plate XXXV, 

P- 95- 

Polar Sea Polype., conftfling of many Bodies., with eight 
Arms or Tentacles to each of thefe Bodies^ being united 
together at orie common Bafe^ arefupported by a ve?y long 
•hony Stem. Plate XXXVII. p. 96. 

Errata 



ERRATA. 

Wherever the Word TentacuU occurs, read Tentacula. 
Page 



10. 

II. 

20. 

n- 

30- 
30- 

33- 

39- 
88. 



line 12. place a. Comma after Terminantibus. 
line 3. for Fig. 6, read Fig. /-. 
Margin, for Fig. a J, read Fig. b B. 

me 20. for Eqwfitiformibus, read EquifetiformihiS-. 

nes II. 1 2 . tor Laryng^, read Laryngi. 

ne 13. for tubidous read tubular. 

ine 26. for Plate XXXV. read Plate XVI J. 
line 1 6; for Fig. «, read Fig. <? 2 . 
"ne 10. place the Comma that follows tejlaceas, uStcr parte. 

ne 1,6. after Co/c?v eburneo put a Comma. 

ne 18. for Fig. f, read Fig. C. 
Margin, for XXIII. read XXXIII. and line 2S. for C read e. 



By Miftake, there are two Chap. V's, fo that the Chapters ihould follow 
regularly to N». XI. inftead of N''. X. 



A N 

S AY 

TOWARDS A 

NATURAL HISTORY 

O F 

ENGLISH CORALLINES, i^c. 




CHAP. L 

N order to be the better underftood, in treating of 
the feveral marine Productions, which are the Sub- 
jed of the following Effay, I find myfelf under a 
kind of Nccefiity to fpeak in the common Lan- 
guage of thofe, who, confidering them merely as Plants or 
marine Vegetables, have, as Botaniil:s, reduced them to certain 
Claffes; and, with the celebrated i?^, fhall divide them into 
Corals^ CGrallmes^ Keraiophytat Kfchara^ Sponges^ and Al~ 
cyonia. But in difpofing of the feveral Subjeds, I fhall ra- 
ther have Regard to the fimilar Texture of the Subftances, 
and the Figure of the Animals that inhabit them, than to tlie 
mere external Form and Appearance, which were the fole 
Objeds of the botanical Writers. 

B Accordinsi 



Natural Hiftory of 

According to this Method, it might be expeded that Corals 
fliould be ranged and defcribed firft : But of thefe we have 
fo few on the Coafts ot England and Irela?id^ and the Tex- 
ture of them fo complex, that wliat I fhall have to fay con- 
cerning them will be better underflood, after the more limple 
Produdlions have been defcribed. 

I fhall therefore firft: proceed to th^CoraH'mes^ by which may 
be underftood thofe fubmarine plant-like Bodies, that condil 
of many flender, finely divided, and jointed Branches, refem- 
bling fome Species of Mofs, and under which Appellation 
they have been defcribed by the Botanifrs. 

Thefe differ from Sea-Plants in Texture, as well as Hard- 
nefs, and likewife in their chymical Produdions, For Sea- 
Plants, properly fo called, fuch as the Algce^ Fuci^ &c. afford 
in Diftillation little or no Traces of a volatile Salt : Whereas 
all the Corallines afford a coniiderable Quantity ; and in 
burning yield a Smell fomewhat refembling that of burnt Horn,, 
and other animal Subftances : Which of itfelf is a Proof that 
this Clafs of Bodies, tho' it has the vegetable Form, yet is 
not intirely of a vegetable Nature. 

In treating of tliefe Corallines, in order to preferve fome 
kind of Method, we fhall divide them into the Veliculated, 
the Tubular, the Celliferous, and the Articulated Poinds. 

All thefe are ranked by Lhmceus under the Title of Ser~ 
udaria^ in his Claffes of the coral -like Bodies. 

Before we proceed, it is necciiaiy to obferve, that the De- 
fcriptions here given are, for the moft part, taken from Co- 
rallines which have been broughi from a conliderab'e Di- 
ftance j tho' no Pains have been ipared to procure them as 

recent 



EngHlh Corallines. 3 

recent as poilible from the Sea, and to examine them on the 
Shores whenever Opportunity offered. 

The veficulated Corallines are diflinguiflied by their horny 
hollow Ramifications, which are difpofed in a Variety of ele- 
gant plant-like Forms ; moft of them are furnifhed with lit- 
tle Denticles on their Branches, like Leaves on Moffes ; and 
at certain Seafons of the Year, we find on them particular- 
fhap'd fmall Bodies Hke Bladders, that proceed from different 
Parts of their Stems and Branches, each being of a peculiar 
Form, according to the different Species. 

Their Colour, when dry, is for the moft part of a yellow- 
ifli or pale brown. 

When they are immerfed in Water, they recover the fame 
Form they appeared in when frefh in the Sea ; and loon 
become filled with the Liquid. This gives them a femi- 
tranfparent Amber-colour, and makes them very elaftic. 
They are found adhering to Rocks, Shells, and Fucus's, by 
fmall root-like Tubes. When they are put into Vinegar they 
caufe no Effervefcence. 



B 2 CHAP. 



Plate I. 
'jg. a. J. 



Natural Hiflory of 

CHAP. II. 

Of the Veficulated Corallines. 

N°. I. /^Oralliriavejiadatafpm'fimet alternatimramofa^den- 
^^ ticulis oppofnls cylindrkisy ofibus crefiaits patulis. 
Sea-Tamarifk. 

This cvirious Coralline was taken up in very deep Water, 
near the Ifland of Dalkey^ at the Entrance of the Harbour 
of Dublin. Its Ramifications are irregular, but chiefly al- 
ternate : Its Texture is of a thin tranfparent horny Nature : 
The Denticles are large, cylindrical, open, and oppoiite j 
and each Pair feems fixt in the Top of the next Pair be- 
low it. 

The Veficles appear to be fliaped fomething like a Hearty 
with a fhort Tube at the Top, not unlike the Aorta, or Fena 
cava cut off, as it is reprefented in the magnified Part, Fig. 
A, Plate I. 

N". I. Fig. a, in the fame Plate, fhews the natural Size 
of a Part of this Coralline : And at Fig. A the Denticles 
are magnified by the fifth Glafs of Wilfons fingle Micro- 
fcope. 

yiate I. ^''. 2. Car allina marina Abietis forma. Tournf. I. R. H. 571. 
Pjg- • B, l^ufcus marinus Filicis folio, H. Ox. Vol. III. p. 65. Tab. 
9. Fig, 1. 
Sea-Fir. 

This Coralline adheres to Oyfters, Mufcks, and other ma- 
rine Subftances by wrinkled tubular Roots ; which rifing in- 
to many ftiff, hollow, and horay Stems, throw out alternate 

regular 



Plate I 



Hi 




Pkt 



? ill ilt^uU 
i II liill Mil 




Veficulated Corallines. 5* 

regular Branches, that have the Appearance of the Fir-tree, 
or, as feme think, of the Fern ; the Branches of this extend- 
ing themfelves in the fame Diredion with the Leaves of that 
Plant. 

The Denticles are placed alternately, and have narrow 
Mouths or Openings. On feveral Parts of this Coralline we 
may obferve oval-fliap'd Veficles, or little Bladders, which 
are inferted in the Stem, and have a Communication with 
the internal Part, by a fmall Opening at the Bottom of each. 
Their Necks are narrow near the Top, like a Pitcher ; and, 
in fome Specimens colleded in the Month of Aprils we have 
obferved the Remains of Animals like Polypes, fixed by the 
Tail to the Infide of the Neck of thcfe Velicles, as in Plate 
L Fig. B. where the dead Polype may be feen hanging out 
of the Veficle. Many Specimens of this Species are found of 
a reddifli Colour ; tho' almofl all the Corallines are of a 
fading yellow or brown Colour. We often find fome of this 
Species full of white fpiral Shells, hke a minute Cornu Am- 
monis \ and others over-run with a fmall bell-fhap'd Coralline, 
which will be defcribed hereafter. 

Plate L N. 2. Fig. b^ reprefents the natural Size and Man- 
ner of the Growth of this Coralline upon a Mufcle-fliell. 
Fig. B reprefents a fmall Piece of it magnified. 

N°. 3. CoraU'ma minus ramofa alterna vice denticulata^ Lenti- ^'"'^^^^ 
culis lineis tranjverjis enterne Jtriatis. R. S. p. 35. N', b.L 

13- 

Great Tooth Coralline. 

There are two Species of this Coralline \ the one upright, 
the other mpre branched and climbing. 

T34e 



6 Natural Hiftory of 

The firll fort is found in Plent}^, growing erecl on Oyfters, 
near ^eenhorough in the Ifland oi Sheppey. This is very Httle 
branched ; the Stem is flender, and twifted a little between 
the Denticles like a Screw : The Denticles are large, pitcher- 
fhaped, and placed alternately. When this Coralline was 
taken out of the Sea at ^u^eenboroughy and kept immerfed a 
little time in Sea-water, I obfei ved, through the Microfcope, 
a Polype occupy the Infide of the whole, nnd each Denticle 
filled with a Part of it, ending in Tufts of tejitaculi^ or fine 
hair-like Claws, as expreffed in Plate II. Fig. A. moving 
about very fwiftly. The Veficle is added here, to fiiew its 
magnified Proportion to the Denticles ; but the Animal was 
dead in it. 

At Fig, a^ N°. 3. in Plate II. is a Mufcle-fhell, with feve- 
ral Sprigs of this Coralline, juft as it is found adhering to it. 
A fmall Piece of one of thefe little Sprigs was put into a 
Watch glafs of Sea-water; and, notwithftanding the Se- 
paration of its Body, in five Minutes time the Claws were 
moving about in fearch of Prey. 

The other Species, which is the climbing one, is more 
branched, the Denticles are placed more afunder, and their 
Mouths are wider : The Veficles of both Species are wrinkled. 

Fig. b^ in Plate II. fhews the natural Appearance of this 
climbing up another Coralline. Fig. B fhews a Piece of it 
with its Veficle magnified. 

Plate II. ]s[o, 4. Corallina mufcofa alterna vice denticulata^ ramulis 
'^' '' in creberrima capillamenta fparjis, R. S. N\ 1 7. pag. 

Squirrel's Tail. 

On all the Shore to the Eaftward of Sheermfs in the Ifland 
of Sheppey^ this beautiful feather'd Coralline is very com- 
mon; 



8 Natural Hiftory of 



Plate in. jsjo^ ^^ CoralUna mufcofa dentkulata procumbens^ cauh tmuif- 
jimo chnticellis ex adve7'fo fitis. R. S. p. 36. N". 13. 
Sea-Hair. 

This very neat and moft regularly formed Coralline con- 
fifts of long trailing Branches, with very fharp Teeth, placed 
in Pairs exadly oppofite : Each Pair feems to be jointed into 
the next. The {lender Branches grow in Tufts, like Bunches 
of Hair. See Plate III. N. 6. Fig. h. This gives yon the na- 
tural Appearance of it. The Veiicks of thefe are remarka- 
bly large and tranfparent, with regular Covers ; the whole 
not unlike to China Jars. 

Fig. B. Plate III. gives us the Reprefentation of a Branch 
with its Veficle magnified. 

The Cover to the Veficle of this Species, in Form has fome 
Refemblance to the Opeixulum of thofe kinds of Land-Mofles, 
which are called Hyp?mm and Bryum. 



Fig. a. A. 



Plate IV. N°. 7. Coralltna pumila penjiata^ dentkuUs teneris, albis^ et 
oppiftis ; veftcidis^jiorem lilii, vel malt punic^Sy fe expanden- 
tem referentibus. 

Lily or Pomegranate flowering Coralline, 

This curious Coralline is often found on the Cyprefs Co- 
ralline before defcribed, which it embraces with its tubulin and 
from thence throws out Branches, furniflied with flender op- 
polite Denticles, of a cylindrical Form, which, as they dry, 
link in at the upper Part. 

At N. 7. in Plate IV. Fig. ^, there are fome fmall Specimens 
reprefented of their natural Size growing upon another Coral- 
line. 

The Veflcles, when magnified^ are fhaped like a Lily or 
Pomegranate- flower juft opening j and appear more like a 

Bloflom. 



Plate l^ 




( 



i 



Veficulated Corallines. 9 

Bloffom, than any belonging to the vvliol^ Tribe of Coral- 
Hnes. 

Fig. A^ is the magnified Appearance of a fmall Branch 
of this CoralHne with its curious Veficles. 

In this magnified Branch, at S, we may obferv^e, that the 
Branches of this Coralline now-and-then terminate in irre(yu- 
larly contorted tubulin not unlike thofe it begins with . 

I obferved at Brighthelmftone many Specimens of this Spe- 
cies adhering to Oyfter-fhells, and growing ered: upon them ; 
thefe were brought to us in a recent State, juft taken out of 
the Sea. I took a very minute Branch from one of them, 
together with its Veficles, and plac'd it in Sea-water upon the 
Stage of my Microfcope, and in a very fhort time I found the 
Animal in the Branch alive, extending its tejitaculi or claws 
out of all its Denticles, but the Animal in the Veficle was con- 
traded, and did not appear to move. 

Fig. C, gives the Appearance of this Branch in the Micro- 
fcope. Here the Spines, which were folded up in the Veficles 
of the Branch at Figure A, are all extended in the Figure C, 

N°. 8. Corallina pmnila repetis minus ramofa, denticellis bijugis. piate v. 
R.S. N\ 19. p. 37. ^'s- «. ^. 

Sea-Oak Coralline. 

This little creeping Coralline arifes here and there from 
fmall thready tubulin which run along the Surface of the broad- 
leaf 'd indented Sea-Oak Fucus. This is found in great Plenty 
on the Sea-fliore near Sheernefs'm the Ifland o^ Sheppey. The 
fame Coralline is found fometimes creeping on the filiquofe or 
podded Fucus. 

The Denticles are blunt at the Openings, and placed in 
Pairs exadly oppofite to each other j each Pair feems to be 

C jointed 



lo Natural Hiftory of 

jointed in the next : The Velicles are almoft globular, and 
are often found wrinkled or furrovv'd acrofs. Fig. rf, N. 8. 
gives the natural Appearance of it creeping on the Sea-Oak 
Fucus. Fig. ^:/, in the fame Plate, fhews a Branch of it with 
the Veficles magnified. 

Whilft I was on the Siiffex Coall at Brighthelmjlone^ I firfl 
perceived the Polypes alive in the Veficles of the denticulated 
Clafs of Corallines, and particularly in this. Thefe Animals are 
of a much largrer Size in the Veficles than thofe in the Denti- 
cles. They are protruded or grow out irregularly here and 
there, wiih their Veiicles, from the Sides ot the Stem and 
Branches. We can eafily diftinguifli them in the Microfcope 
to be united to the Body of the Parent Polype ; which feems 
to confifl: of Links of fmall Polypes in Pairs, each Pair con- 
neded to other Pairs by a flefby Line, that runs through the 
Middle of the Coralline. Here we faw the fmall Polypes 
of this Species extending their Claws in fearch of Food, as well 
as thofe of the veliculated kind. 

Fig. A^ defer ibes them as they appeared in the Microfcope 
while recent. 

Plate V ^°' 9- CoralUna vejiculata^ caule a?igulato rigido, ramis denfe 
Fig. b, B. Jlipatis et bifurcatis^ tet'ininantibus deittkulis cauli apprejjts. 
Fucus Equifeti facicy Ojlrece Tejics adnafcens. 

Sibbald. Scot. 111. L. i.p. 56, Tab. 12. 
R. S. N°. 47. p. 50. 
Bottle-brufb Coralline. 

This Coralline arifes from horny tubulin which flrongly ad- 
here to Sea-{hells. 

The Stalk is ered, ftiff, and full of Knots, terminating the 
alternate Angles, which feem to be the jEnds of Branches 
broken ofT. It 



Ji^ Plate V 




Bate \I 



I 




t 



Veficulated Corallines. ii 

It is generally found with a thick Tuft of fhort Branches, 
growing clofe together on the upper Part of the Stem. See 
its natural Size at N. 9. Fig. 6. 

Each Division of a Branch has two Prongs or Horns. Tlie 
Denticles lie fo remarkably clofe to the Branches, as fcarce 
to be diftinguillied from them without the Help of a Micro- 
fcope: But by this we difcover a fmall Hole in tiie Top of each, 
as in moil other Denticles. 

The Veficles are placed at the Bottom of the Branches ; 
and appear to be of an oval Shape, with an Operculum or 
litde Cover at the Top of moft of chem. 

They are found on the Coaft of Scotland^ and in the North 
of Engla?id ; particularly about Scarborough^ where the Fifh- 
ermen have given them the Name of Bottle-bruflies. 

Fig. 5, in Plate V. fliews a Part of a Branch magnified* 
with its Velicles. 

N°. 10. Corallma ereSia pennata, denticulis ahernis cauli ap~ piatevi 
prejjis^ Lonchitis vel Polypodii facie. F'g- «• ^■ 

Sea Spleenwort or Polypody. 

This horny upright Coralline has two Rows of ftrait hollow 
Branches a little comprefTed, which are placed on the mid- 
dle Stem oppofite to each other, in a parallel and alternately 
pennated Form, like the Leaves of Polypody : Each fmall Branch 
is furniflied with two Rows of Denticles, placed alternately 
oppofite, and feem funk into the Branch ; fo that they appear 
as Part of it ; except their Tops, which are open, and projed: 
a very little. The main Stem is jointed here and there like 
a Reed. 

The natural Size is reprefented at N°. ro. Fie. a. 

C 2 " Fig. 



12 Natural Hiftory of 

Fig. A, in the fame Plate, fliews a Part of it magnified. 

I have not yet received any Specimens with Veficles, fo 
perfed as to be able to defcribe them. 

This was lately taken up, among other Sea Produdionsj 
by the FiOiermen near the Harbour o^ Dublin. 

Plate VII. N°. II. Corallina Mufcofa pennata ramulis &' capillajnen- 
Fis- a. i tisfalcatis. R. S. N°. i6. p. 36. 
Sickle Coralline. 

This elegant feathered Coralline adheres to Rocks and 
Shells by little wrinkled Tubes, and rifis from thence into 
eredl waved Stems, which are furrounded fromBottom to Top 
with pennated Branches ; the fmaller Divifions of thefe have 
Rows of little Denticles, or Teeth, on the Side ; and bend 
inward, as they become dry, in the Form of a Sickle. 

Fig. a-, N°. II. reprefents the natural Appearance of 
this Coralline. 

•The Veficles are nearly of an inverted oval Shape, broad 
at Bottom, and* narrower at Top where the Opening is ; fome 
■ of them appear, as if they had a Calyx like a Flower at the 
Bottom of the Veficle : Moft of the dry'd Specimens, I have 
yet feen, have had an Orange- colour'd vifcid Subftance in 
them, which feems of the fame Nature with the Contents of 
the reft. 

Fig. A^ is Part of a Branch, with its fmaller Ramifications 
like Sickles, and its Veficles magnified. 

This Coralline is common on the Coaft of Kent^ near 
Sheernefs, in the Ifland o{ Sheppey 3 and on the Shores of many 
other Parts of thefe Kingdoms. 

N°. X2. 



PlateAOL 



Nn 




Veficulated Corallines. 13 

N°. 12. Corallina pennata&' filiquata, de?iticulis florem ItUum Plate vii. 
convailium referenttbus. 

Pimiaria marina Imperati. Bocc. 257. N°. 6. 
The Podded Coralline . 

The little radical Tubes of this Coralline creep on, and ad- 
here to Mufcles, and other Shells : From thefe arife little 
Branches like Feathers ; each fmaller Divifion of a Branch is 
curved, when dried, like a Sickle ; and the Denticles, which 
are fixed in a Row on the Infide, are fhaped, when magni- 
fied, like the Flowers of the Lily of the Valley. 

This Coralline is alfo found furrounding the Stalks of the 
podded Fucus, with its tubulous Roots not adhering to, but 
inclofing it ; as it is reprefented in its natural Size, at N°. 1 2. 
Fig. 6. 

From the Branches arife little Pods encompafled by feveral 
ftudded Ribs : On examining thefe Pods in the Microfcope, 
I have obferved fome loofe Particles, in fome of them, like 
Seeds ; but, upon, difleding the thin membranaceous Coat 
of thefe tranfparent Pods, and more minutely examining the 
inclofed Subftance with higher Magnifiers, it appeared of the 
fame Kind and Confiftence with the Subftance found in the 
Veficles of other Corallines. 

Fig. B^ {hews the Pod^ and Denticles, as they appear 
in the Microfcope. 

This Coralline is found on feveral Coafts of this Kingdom ; 
but the Specimen with Pods was taken up by the Fifiiermen, 
on the Coaft of Ireland near Dublin, 

Z N°. 13. 



14 Natural Hiftory of 

^¥i^Z^A'^°' ^^* Corallina potnata W falcata^ pnnas caiidcs Phafi- . 
a?ti referens caule gibbofo. 

Corallina fruticofa pe7inata. Barr. Palma Marina. Barrel. 
Icon. 1292. n. 2. 

Pheafant's-tail Coralline, 

This very rare Coralline grows to the Height of i o or 1 2 
Inches. The Root, or firft Beginning, confifts of an irre- 
gular Tuft of extremely fmall Tubes, appearing like a Piece 
of Sponge to the naked Eye : Several of thefe little Tubes, 
rifing together, and uniting in clofe Contadl, become a Stalk, 
which appears in the Microfcope curioufly channel'd and in- 
dented : On the Back of the Stalk, at nearly equal Diftances, 
are formed little regular arch-like Riiings, which are com- 
prefled and hollowed a little in the Middle. 

Fig. ^, N°. 13. in Plate VIII. fhews the natural Appear- 
ance of this Coralline with its fpongy Root. 

The main Stem is now-and-then ramified ; the Branches 
are pennated, and the Pe?pice^ or fmall Divifions of the 
Branches, turn one Way, and, when dry, are bent like 
a Sickle. 

The Denticles are like Cups with an even Brim, fixed in 
Sockets, and placed all on the fame Side one above another j 
the Openings, or Mouths, looking upwards. 

Fig. J^ fhews the microfcopical Appearance of Part of the 
cribbous Stem, with the Figure and Pofition of the Denticles. 
No Veficles have yet been difcovered ot this curious Co- 
ralline. 

This was procured from the Fifhermen that attend the 
Dubl'm Market ; and was taken up in very deep Water, on 
that Coafr. 

N°. 14. 



Plate Vni 




JT S^*artf.'i'a//.- 




Jf Ji,'/<eyi^ X-m/iC/ 



Veficulated Corallines. i^ 

N'^. 14. Corallina ajiaci cor?tictdorum cemula. R. S. N^. 10. Plate ix. 
pag. 34. And '^' ''■ 

Corallina ramofa cirris obfita. R. S. N°. 11. pag. "^c^. 
Lobfter's horn Coralline, or Sea-beard. 

Thefe two Coralline-, as mentioned by Mr. Ray^ I find 
to be but one Species ; It is probable, their having dijfferent 
Appearances, in different States, might be the Occahon of 
their being thought two diftinft Species. 

As to the fird, this outwardly appears to be regularly 
jointed from End to End, like a Lobfter's Horn, or rather 
the Vertebrce of Fillies ; each Articulation is furrounded by 
fhort capillary Branches ; which, when magnified, have the 
Appearance of Sickles, and bend in towards the main Stem. 
Along the Infide of thefe, are regularly placed minute 
Sockets which fupport fmall open Denticles of a Cup-lhape ; 
which are of fo tender a Nature, that they are fcarce vifible, 
but in recent Specimens : Between the minute hair-like 
Branches, we have obferved, on fome Specimens, fmall egg- 
fhaped Veficles, fixed on Foot-ftalks, with their Openings or 
Mouths, on the Side of the Top of each, looking towards the 
middle Stem ; and, in moft of them, fome of the fame kind 
of yellow Subftance that we meet with in other Veficles. 
The whole Stem, Branches, and Foot-ftalks, to the Veficles 
appear hollow, in fuch Specimens as we find caft on Shore; 
fo that it appears as if the Water could pafs freely through 
them all without Interruption. 

The Roots of both Species confift, like the former, of a 
fpongy Mafs of minute Tubulin irregularly interwoven toge- 
ther j but, upon feparating this Mafs from the lower Part of 
the Stem, we found them regularly entering into it, in 
Whirls round the Joints, in the fame Form that the Branches 
come out of the Joints of the Stem. 

Fig, 



i^ Natural Hiftory of 

Fig. a, reprefents the natural Size of the Coralline I 
have been defcribing : But I muft remark, that we often 
meet with Specimens three times as long as this. 

Fig. Ay is a Part of one of the Stems magnified to fhew the 
Shape of the Veficles, and the Difpofition of the Branches. 

Fig. B, is the lower Part of one of the Stems, fhewing the 
Manner that the little radical Tubes enter into it. 

Mr. Rays fecond Species, I take to be the fame as the 
former, but in a younger State. This differs in being branched 
out, and in having its capillary Ramifications much longer. 

While I was on the Sujfex Coaft, I met with this Coralline 
adhering to an Oyfler-fhell, and in the utmoftPerfedtion, the 
Animal being alive in it. 

An Account of this, with a very elegant Drawing, taken 
on the Spot by the ingenious Mr. Ehret^ I had the Honour 
to lay before the Royal Society in June laft. 

Fig. b. N°. 14. is a Defign taken from a dried Specimen 
of it. That which we viewed at the Sea-iide in Salt-water 
had its little Fibrillce along the Branches more extended, or 
flood out more, like minute Plumes of Feathers. 

Fig. C. is the magnified Reprefentation of one of thefe Fi~ 
. hrillce^ or minute fickle-fliapcd Branches, as it appeared with 
the Animals thrufting out their Claws from their Denticles. 
Though this little Branch appears to be jointed, yet the flelhy 
Part of the Animal, which is here exprefl'ed by the dark 
Shade, is connecled together through every joint, as \^ell as 
to every little Polype. 

This was magnified by the fourth Glafs of Wilfons Micro- 
fcope J and the fickle -fliap'd Branches at A^ by Glafs N°. 6. 

Fi^. 



TJate X 




Veficulated Corallines. 17 

N°. 15. Corailina ereSitty iubulofa,pennata, hakcisfpince facie, pi^.e x. 
Coral Una fcrupofa^ pe?i7iatay caulkulis crajftujculis rigidis. 
R. S. N^ 15. p. 36. 
Herring-bone Coralline. 

This Coralline is often found flicking to Oyfters as they 
are brought to the London Market, during the Winter- feafon. 

It grows to be 6 or 8 Inches high, ere(5l and ftiff, but very- 
brittle when it is dry. The Stems confifl: of a great Num- 
ber of fmall Tubes growing nearly Parallel to each other ; 
in fome, one may count, in a tranfverfe Sedlion, above 
one hundred : Thefe feem to arife from a great Niunber of 
the fame fort of Tubes, irregularly matted together like a 
piece of Sponge ; which are fixed to Oyfter-fhclls, and fup- 
port the Coralline like fo many Roots. 

This Coralline increafes in Size, by Detachments of thefc 
tubulous Roots, which arife all round, and creep along the 
Outfide of thofe that went before, to which they firmly ad- 
here ; and when they arrive at the Deftination, that Nature 
has appointed them, they change their Appearance, and take 
the Shape of Branches, placed at a regular Angle of 45 De- 
grees from the Stem j and fo exa<Elly proportionable is the 
Diftance of thefe Branches from one another, that though 
they are placed alternately, with refpcd: to each other, yet 
the whole has, at firft Sight, the Appearance of an HCTring- 
bone ; the Sockets on the Branches are placed alternately. 
On thefe Sockets, while 1 was at Whitjlabh in Augtijl laft, 
I perceived very tender tranfparent Denticles of a cylindrical 
Shape, which appeared to be double ; that is^ one above the 
other ; in thefe were Polypes, which were connedled by their 
lower Parts to a flender flefhy Subftance of the fame Nature 
with themfelves, which I could trace through the Middle of 
the Branches, and Tubes of the Stem. 

D I re- 



1 8 Natural Hiftory of 

1 received Tome Specimens of this Coralline, that were ga- 
thered in the Month o^ April : Their Side-branches were co- 
vered with regular Rows of Veficles flanding upright ; thefe 
were almoft full of a yellow Subflance, like many of the other 
Veficles. When the Coralline is in this State, the Fifhermen 
fay they are in BlofTom. The Shape of thefe Veficles is an 
irregular Oval, with a Tube arifmg from the Pedicle, and 
palling up on one Side to a little above the Top of each : 
This Tube is open at Top, and feems clofely united to the 
Veficle. 

We muft here obrer\'e, that there is a good deal of Refem- 
blance, in Miniature, of this Coralline to fome of the Ame- 
rican Keratophytons, or Sea- feathers, that grow in a pennated 
Form, and are covered with a Crufi: of regular Rows of little 
Animals in their Cells, along the Edges of the Branches. 

The Manner likewife of this Coralline's increafmg its 
Trunk and Branches in Bulk, by a continued Succeffion of 
frefh 'Tiibuli arifing all round them, and adhering firmly to 
thofe that arofe before, gives us fome Idea of the Formation 
of Corals, that are compofed of Tubes, which, as the Animals 
retire, are filled with a ftony Matter. For even in the Stems 
and Trunks of this Coralline, we may obferve, that though 
the Materials, of which it is formed, feem to be of a fpongy 
elaftic^ature, yet the inner Tubes become firm, opaque, 
and brittle, whilft the outward and more recent-formed 
Tubes are thin, tender, and tranfparent. 

Fig. a-i N'. 15. Plate X. gives us the Appearance that this 
Coralline makes in its natural State, with its fpongy Tuft of 
Roots. 

Fig. A^ is a fmall Sprig magnified, to fhew the Tubes of 

which 



Plate XE 




Veficulated Corallines, ip 

which it confifls ; with the Form of its Veficles, and the Po- 
lypes in their Denticles. 

Fig. C, fhews on the fame Sprig the alternate Order of the 
Sockets, in which the tender double Denticles, containing 
the Polypes, are fixed. 

Fig. B, (hews the Tuhuli of Part of the Stem not fo highly 



magnified. 



N^ 1 6. Corallina fetacea^ injlar arundinis genkulata^ capil- Plate XLr,.X 
lamentis ftngulis unkuique geniculo altematitn difpojitis. 
An Fucoides feiaceum tenuijfme alatum P R. S. N". 6, 
p. 38. 
Jn Fucoides fe^is minimis indivifts co7iflansf R, S. N'. 7. 

P-39- 

Sea-Briflles. 

This fmall Coralline grows on Mufcle-fhells, and other 
marine Bodies, like ft iff Briftles. When they are found dry 
on the Shore, they all bend one way, like the fmall ones de- 
fcribed on the Mufcle-lhell, N°. 16. Plate XL which Re~ 
prefentation was taken from Nature. 

Upon examining one of the Stems in the Microfcope, 
it appeared jointed, like a Reed, as at A. From the upper 
Part of each Joint arifes a fmall capillary Branch ; thefe 
are difpofed, in refpedt to one another, in an alternate Or- 
der : They are alfo jointed ; and upon the upper Part of 
thefe Joints are placed in Sockets, fmall cup-fhap'd Denticles, 
in which I difcovered Polypes, like thofe defcribed in the 
Lobfter's-horn Coralline ; and here reprefented at A^ Plate 
XI. The Veficles in dry Specimens appeared as in the fame 
Figure A^ fhaped like an Olive. I obferved one at Bricrht- 

D 2 hehnfiom 



20 Natural Hiftory of 

heimjione with its Animal juft contraded, as in the faine Fi- 
gure under the other Vei'icles, the Top of which is indent- 
ed, and appeared not unHke a Coronet : At Whitfiable^ I 
lately colleded a curious Specimen of this Coralline, which 
is reprefented on the Mufcle-fliell, at Figure ^, in its natural 
Size, 

Plate XI. N". 17. Cot'allina confervoides gelatinofa alba^ gefiiculis crajjt- 
^ Fig. ^. A. ufculis pelluddis. R. S. p. 34. N°. 7. 
Silk Coralline. 

This extreme fine, flender, and tranfparent Coralline, ad- 
heres, by many minute tubular Threads, like fine Silk, to 
Stones, and other fubmarine Subftances ; thefe Threads unite- 
ing form the Stem, from which proceed many long flender 
Ramifications, with a middle Stalk of a zigzag or alternately- 
angled Form : From the Points of thefe Angles, go ofF very 
minute fhort Branches, whofe Divifions are always two and 
two, that is, difpofed in a dichotomous Order. In thefe ap- 
pear thro' the Microfcope regular Rows of Holes on one Side, 
each furrounded by a Rim like a Socket : Thefe Holes are 
placed proportionably nearer to each other, as the Branches 
grow lefs and lefs ; which they do till they end in Points. 

At N\ 17. ^, Plate XI. is an exad Reprefentation of 
this Coralline in its proper Proportion : A fmall Branch of 
this is magnified at B \ and the fine tubular Threads, which 
are reprefented adhering to a Stone at Fig. d^ are magnified 
at Figure D. 

The Veficles are of an oval Shape, and open at the Top ; 
but they are fo exceeding fmall, thin, and tender, that they 
cannot be preferved without the greateft Difficulty. 

In 



PlateXIl 




Veficulated Corallines. 21 

In September 1753, I received fome frefli Specimens of this 
Coralline in Salt-water, taken up at the Nore^ near the En- 
trance of the Thames. In thefe I obferved each of thofe 
fmall Holes fupplied with a Veficle, and a Polype in it, in 
the manner they are reprefented at Fig. 5, Plate XI. Thefe 
Polypes have 8 Tentaculi or Arms ; and while the Branch 
was in the Watch-glafs of Sea-water, on the Stage of the Mi- 
crofcope, I could plainly diftinguifh that the internal hol- 
low Part of the whole Coralline was filled with the Subftance 
of the Parent Polype, which appeared to be of a tender gela- 
tinous Nature ; and upon the leaft Extenfion or Contradtion 
of the young Polypes, this tender flefhy Subftance was vifi- 
bly affeded ; for each one was united to it by their lower 
Part or Tail. 

Fig. C, was drawn from a Piece of a Branch not yet un- 
folded ; the Ends of this are round, and the Polypes ftill in- 
clofed in their Veficles, having not as yet arrived at Maturity. 
Thefe Embryo Polypes were fmaller and clofer as they ap- 
proached towards the Extremities of the young Branch. 

The Motion of the Inteftines of the young Polypes was very 
diftinguifhable till the Water became putrid ; and then both 
Veficles and Polypes dropped off, like blighted Bloflbms off 
a Tree ; and the Subftance of the Parent Polype, though 
feeming to fill the whole Cavity of the Branch before, as foon 
as the Water became improper for its Support, fhrivelled up 
immediately fo as fcarce to be vifible. 



N°. 1 8. Corallina procumhens caule corneo^ lo?7go, JUiforfm, ar- 
ticulator vejiculis^ ramorutn acdllis, pedu?iculis contortis^ in- 
Jideniibus. 

Sea-thread Coralline. 

This Coralline has very tough, pliant, and thread-like, 
3 Stalks 



Plate Xil 



22 Natural Hiftory of 

Stalks divided into Joints by fmall Rings ; from thefe pro- 
ceed little Footftalks twifted like a Screw, that fupport Vefi- 
cles of an oval Shape ; fome with a fmall Opening at the Top, 
and fome quite open. This is found in great Abundance on 
the South-Weft Coaft of Englandy and feems moft curioufly 
contrived, from its Structure, to refift the Violence of the 
Waves, all its Joints being furnifhed with Springs. Its Veficles 
are alfo formed fo as to yield eafily to every violent Impulfe 
of the W^ater without Injury, from their being placed on Foot- 
ftalks formed like Screws. 

Fig. a, N". 1 8. in Plate XII. is the Appearance they make 
in their natural Size. 

Fig. Aj ftiews Part of a Branch magnified. 

Plate XII. •^''' ^ 9* Corallina minor repens caule nodofo^ articulator ^ 
Fig. t. B. veficulis alter?iis ijiJiruEio. 

Knotted-thread Coralline. 

This creeping Coralline is generally found adhering to the 
podded Fucus, from whence it throws out little jointed and 
waved tender Branches, about an Inch long : The upper Part 
of the Joints appear to be knobbed ; upon thefe reft the Veft- 
cles in an alternate Order, fupported by fcrew-like Footftalks. 
The Shape of the Veficles is like an Oil- Jar with a Neck to it. 

This Coralline was found at Dover ; and I have lately re- 
ceived fome Specimens from Harwich ; fo that I believe it is 
not uncommon on our Coafts. 

Fig. ^, N". 19. Plate XII. was drawn from a fmall Piece of 
the podded Fucus^ with feveral Branches of this Coralline 
growing upon it. 

Fig. Bj gives the Appearance of a fmall Branch of it mag- 
nified. 

In 



Plate Xnt 







Veficulated Corallines. 25 

In September 1753, I receiv^ed a recent Specimen of one of 
this Species in Sea-water, and had an Opportunity to difco- 
ver in the Microfcope the Form and Motion of the Polype 
that poflHied the Infide of it, and of tracing the main Body 
through all its undulated Cafe, as it is exprefl'ed in the 
magnified Figure at C. In the fame Plate, Fig. c, is the na- 
tural Size of the Piece magnified. Since this Obfervation, I had 
an Opportunity, \n June ij ^a^.^ 2i\. Brighthelmjlone^ of feeing 
this Coralline in a more perfect manner ; and have had the 
Honour of laying the Account of ir, with a very curious 
Drawing by Mr. Ehret^ before the Royal Society. 

The Form of the Veficles is like a Cup, in which the princi- 
ple Parts of the Animals are placed: We have feen them thruft- 
ing out their Claws or Tefitaculi in fearch of Prey, and have ob- 
obferved them at the fame time moving their Cups with their 
fcrew'like Stalks atPleafure; whilft the whole Trunk of the Po- 
lype in the Infide ot the Stem, or horny Cafe, was at the fame 
time affedled with their Motions ; for they appeared but as fo 
many Arms united to, and ot a Piece with, the Body. 

N°. 20. Corallina rajnofa^ ramis Jlngulh equi^tiformibust ^^ Plate xiir. 
fummis capillament'is contortis et ve?'ticillatijn difpoJttJSj vc- ^'*' "' ^' 
Jiculas campaniformes gere?is, 

Horfe-tail Coralline with bell-fhaped Cups. 

This curious Coralline was colledled on the Sea-coaft near 
Whitehaven^ in Cutnberland^ by that learned and eminent Phy- 
fician Dodlor William Brownrigg^ F. R. S. ; and appears thro' 
the Microfcope to be of the moft lingular Strudure oi any 
yet defcribed. 

It confifts of fundry Branches, and every Branch is com- 
pofed of many ftrait united fmall Tubes, which, at certain 
equal Diftances, fend off fmall capillary fcrew-like Stalks, each 

of 



24 Natural Hiftory of 

of which fupport a Cup of a bell-fhaped Figure, curioufly 
indented round the Brim ; thefe are placed in fuch a man- 
ner as to correfpond exadtly in Point of Situation with the 
others, and to give the whole very much the Appearance of 
the Plant called Horfe-tail, or Equifetum ; the capillary Stalks 
and their Cups being all difpofed in Whirls, or like Branches 
for Candles, 

Fig. ay N". 20. Plate XIII. gives us the Figure of this Co- 
ralline as it was received. 

Fig. y^, fhews a magnified Part of one of the Branches dif- 
covering 5 Tubes, which compofe the Stalk, and 5 twifted 
Stalks with their Cups at equal Diftances in each Whirl. 

Plate XIV. N°. 21. Corallina minima fcandeiu^ vejiculas campanifo?'mes 
Fig. a. A. j^j ftunfno caule li?ieari contorto gerens. 

Small climbing Coralline with bell-fliaped Cups. 

This very minute Coralline arifes from fmall irregular 
Tubes, which adhere to, and twine about, other Corallines, 
particularly the Sickle Coralline. 

Exceeding fmail twifted Stalks go out from this tubular 
Stem, which fupport little bell-fhaped Cups with indented 
Brims : At the Bottom of each, where they join to the Stalk, 
the Microfcope difcovers to us a very minute Spherule, or little 
Ball, as in fome Drinking-glaiTes. I had the Pleafure while 
I was at Brighthelmjlone in Ju7^e 1754, of feeing the Ani- 
mals of this Coralline extending their Claws, or "Tentaculi^ and 
moving their Stems : One of thefe as it appeared to us in the 
Microfcope, is defcribed at the upper Part of the Fig. A^ 
plate XIV. Their natural Size, as they adhere to the Sickle 
Coralline, may be feen at Fig. ^, N°. 21. 

This 



Veficulated Corallines. 2f 

This Species of Animals feems to be nearly allied to the 
Bell-animals, adhering to the Duckweed, or Lem PaluJIris, 
defcribed by Mr. Lewenhoeck, and of which he has given us 
a 'PxguvQin t}\Q Philofophkal Tr an faSi ions ^ N*^. 2VS3, 295, and 
337 ; only ours are much larger. 

There is another Species of this creeping kind of Bell -Co- 
ralline, which is found adhering to the Sea-fir Coralline. 

The Difference between them is, that the twifted Stalks 
of this are much iLorter, and the Cups are longer iliaped, 
and not indented about the Brims. See its natural Size Fig. 
/5, N^ 2 I . in the fame Plate ; and Fig. 5, its magnified 
Appearance. 

N°. 22. Coralljjta ojnnium 77ihihua^ vejrculis nunc ramofimi vwitxiu. 
nunc racematim^ denfa difpofitis. ig-i-B-ct. 

Cluflering Polype Coralline. 

This is the fmalleft of all the Tribe of Corallines, appear- ^ 
ing through the fourth Magnifier of Wilfoti^ fingle Micro- 
fcope, no bigger than tlie Fig. B and C, Fhe n?.tural Size is 
exprefTed at ^ 22 and c 22. 

While I was obfervins; with Attention fome other marine 
Productions in the Microfcope, I difcovered the roiuid Bunch, 
of tranfparent Globules, at Fig. C flicking to a Branch of 
one of the Corallines ; this on a fudden, to my great Sur- 
prize, rofe up, and expanded itfelf under my Eye, into the 
Plant-like Figure at 5, with regular Branches and Stalks 
fupporting Pear-lliaped Veficles : Each of thefe Veficles, with 
its Polype in it, appeared to act independently for itielf ; for 
I obferved each of them very bufy prowling about in Search 
of Prey, fo far as the Length of their Stalk would permit 
them : In lefs than a Minute, I was a^ much amazed to find, 

E that^ 



Fig. «, ji. 



z6 Natural Hiftory of 

that, as if by common Confent, upon fome Warning given, 
the whole Company at once funk down, and contracted them- 
felves into the Figure of a Mulberry or Bunch of Grapes, like 
that at Fig. C. After it had continued for fome Seconds in 
this Form, it again expanded itfelf as before, and in this 
manner continued expanding and contradling itfelf, during 
the whole Time of Obfervation. 

This Species of Polype feems to agree with Mr. Trembkyz 
Cluftering Polypes ; only his were in frefh, and thefe in Sea, 
Water. 

Plate XV. N°. 2ii CoralUna exigua repenSj de?iticulis ahernisy fruc^ 
tus medicce cochieatce cemidis. 
Snail-trefoil Coralline. 

This very fmall but curious Coralline was found creeping 
on the narrow-leafed Hornwrack of i?^'s Sy?7opfis^ called by 
him, Fuci telam lineam fericeamve textu?'a fna mnulantis al- 
tera /pedes auguftior. R. S. pag. 43. N^. 10. 

From the irregular creeping tubulous Roots, by which it 
adheres to the Fucus abovi -mentioned, arife little Spikes or 
Branches, furnifhed with alternate Denticles, mod: curioufly 
furrowed, like the Seed-Veffels of the Plant called the Snail- 
trefoil. 

Fig. tty N**. 23. fhews the natural Size of this Coralline, 
creeping on the Hornwrack. 

Fig. Ay reprefents the creeping Tubes with the Denticles, 
and one Veficle magnified. While I was at Bright he hnjione, 
June 1754, I difcovered the Veficles of this Coralline; for 
I had before apprehended the Denticles to be Veficles ; they 
differ but little from the Denticles, only in the 3 Teeth that 

are 



EkteX^^ 



Jr24 



2^i \)aU-^J 





Veficulated Corallines. 27 

are placed in the Opening at the Top of each. See the Ve- 
ficle above, Fig. ^. 

N^. 24. CoralUna exigua-, caulc genkulaio^ fcandens^ vejicn- p,^jg ^v, 
lis ex Ufioquoque genkulo ftc dijpojjtis, ut Jyringani Panis re~ ^"'S- '''•'^' 
ferent, 

Fucoides heridigerum caplllamentis ctifcutoi injhr im- 
plexis. R. S. pag, 30. N'. 3. 
Nit CoralUne. 

This extremely fmall climbing Coralline arifes from very 
minute Tubes, by which it adheres to Fucus'sy and other ma- 
rine Bodies ; and is fo difpoled from its jointed Shape, that 
it climbs up and runs over other Corallines and Fkcus's^ as 
Dodder does over other Plants. 

Fig. h^ N°. 24. is the natural Size and Appearance of this 
Coralline. 

The Veficles, which have the Appearance of Rows of Den- 
ticles, are placed in fuch a regular Order on the End of each 
Joint, that when they are magnified, they rcprefent the an- 
tique Figure oi Pans Pipe. 

Fig. By is the exad: Drawing taken from the Microfcope. 

I have called it the Nit Corahine from Mr. Ray\ calling it 
the Nit-bearing Fucoides, The fmall Veficles clofcly joined 
together, in little fpeck-like Figures among the irregular ca- 
pillary Branches, gives us fome Idea of that Form. See the 
natural Size, Fig. b. 

N">. 25. CoralUna mifiima t^epens^ vcficulis ovatis^ uvarum in- p^texv. 
Jla7\ ramidis adljerentibus. f's- <:• c- 

Grape Coralhhe. 

This exceeding fmall Coralline creeps on the broad-leafed 

E 2 Horn- 



28 Natural Hiftory of 

Hornwrack oi Ray\ Synopfis^ pag. 42. N^. 9. called Fucus 
telam linea?n fericeaf?ive textura /ua cefmdafis ; and fends out 
Cluflers of X'eficles from feveral Parts of its creeping Tube, 
each of which has a black Spot in it, Hke the Spawn of Frogs: 
Or rather, thefe look when they are magnified, like a Bunch 
of full ripe tranfparent oval-fhaped Grapes with the Stones 
in them, as is reprefented in the magnified Fig. C, Plate XV. 
The natural Size of this Coralline is drawn creeping on the 
broad-leafed Hornwrack, at Fig. c, N°. 25. 

Among many other marine Subftances received frelli from 
the Sea, in September 1753, this Objed happened to prefent 
itfelf under my magnifying Glafies ; when, to my Surprize, 
I found thofe grape-like Bodies were a Clufter of Poly- 
pes, each having eight Claws or T^entacuU^ very lively, ex- 
tending themfelves about in purluit of Prey ; and upon their 
dying, the Animals conlrafted themfelves into their Vcficles, 
which clofed at the Top : What we difcover as a Spot, is 
only the Inteftines of the Polype with its Food in it. 

Fig. Z), fhews the Figure of the Polypes extending them 
felvcs out of the Veficle;, as taken from the Microfcope : 
Thefe are placed on the fame Branch, where the dead ones 
are reprefented like Grapes, at Fig. 6". 

Plate XIV. N°. 26. Coralli7ia cufcutca forma^ mi?2ima^ ramofa, repens. 
Fig. c. c. ramulis oppofttis^ veficulis mimaijfmiis ovatn conjertis^ geni- 
culis 7'amulorum wfuieniibus, 

Climbingr Dodder-like Coralline. 

This very flender climbing Coralline has the Appear- 
ance of Dodder when it is magnified ; and runs upon the 
podded FuaiSj from whence it llioots into extreme fine 

flender 



Veficulated Corallines. 25? 

(lender Branches, which are placed oppoGte to one an- 
other. 

Fig. c, N°. 26. givvis us the true Form of this Corahine 
climbing up the Fucus. 

The,Microrcope has difcovercd to us the Veficles, which 
are fmall and Egg-fhaped, growing together, for the moft part 
at the Joints of the Branches. 

Fig. C, is a Branch magnified. 



CHAP. 



30 Natural Hiftory of 

CHAP. III. 

Of the Tubular Corallines. 

BY Tubular Corallines are meant fuch as are compofed 
of a Number of fimple Tubes, growing up near togo- 
ther ; or fuch branch'd ones as are compofed only of Tubes 
without Denticles or Veficles. Thefe are of the fame horny, 
elaflic Nature with the former ; and like them recover their 
original Form, after being fome time dry, by being put into 
Water : They arife too, like the preceding Clafs, from mi- 
nute worm-like Tubes ; and widen a little as they advance 
in Height. Some of them look wrinkled like the Windpipe, 
and others like the Inteflines of fmall Animals. 

Plate XVI. N°. r. CoralUna tubularia laryngce ftmilis. 
^'^' ■ An Fticus Deahnfis fiftidofus laf-yng.^ fwiilisf R. S. p. 39. 

Tubulous Coralline wrinkled like the Windpipe. 

This Coralline is found in great Plenty in the Sea, near 
the Opening of the 'Thames^ adhering to other marine Bodies, 
and often to the Bottoms ol Ships. I have received it with 
the Animals alive in Sea-water ; in which State it affords a 
moft agreeable Scene : The Top of each Tube bearing a 
bright crimfon-coloured Polype, equal in Richnefs of Colour 
to the Guernfey Lily ; all the Animals difplaying their Claws 
or Tentaculi at the fame time, with furprizing Agility. 

Fig. b, gives the natural Size of fbme of tbefe Tubes. 

N°. 2. 



PLate JSIL 




.0 . ' 






I 



Tubular Corallines. ^i 

"N°. 2. Corallina tubularia calamos ave?iaceos referens. Plate xvi. 

Adiaiiti aurei minimi facie plant a mariria. R. S. p. 31. ^'S''^- 
Tubalar Coralline like oaten Pipes. 

This is the largeft of this Tribe of Efigli/h tubuloiis Coral- 
lines ; and is the fame that the celebrated D. Bernard Juf- 
Jieu found on the Coaft of Nor^nandy^ and uefcribed with 
its Polype^. It arifes from fmall w^orm-like Figures ; many of 
which grow interwoven together, and look like the Guts ot 
fmall Animals : From this State they rife into diftind: Tubes 
of 5 and 6 Inches long, full oi a thick reddifh Liquor : On 
the Top of thefe the Polypes appear with plumed Crefts. 
Thefe Tubes in the dried Specimens have the Refemblance of 
Oaten Pipes ; that is, Part of an Oat-ftraw, with the Joints 
cut off. 

Fig. C, is the natural Appearance of this Coralline, with 
the Animals upon it. 

Plate 

N". 3. Corallina tubulari a gracilis &' ramoja^ axil lis ramu-^^l\^J^' 
lorum contortis. Plate xvil 

An [uciis jijiulofus nudus fetas erinaceas ce-mulansf R. S. %-^- 

pag- 39- . 

Small ramified tubular Coralline. 

This branched tubular Coralline is found frequently on 
Oyfters, and other marine Productions . 

While I was at Whitfiabh on the Kentijh Shore, in Au- 
gujl 1754, I found, among other CoraHines, the Specimen 
defcribed at Fig. ^, Plate ;M:XV!llwith its Polypes alive : 
This I drew on the Spot from the Microfcope, with all its 
Animals extending themfelves in their different Diredions, 
as they lay immerled in a Glafs of Sea- water \ and are pretty 
exadiy exhibited at Fig. A. 

This-. 



32 Natural Hiftory of 

This Inftance affords us a plain Demonftration that the 
curious branched CoralHnes, defcribed in the Beginning of 
this Effay, are of the Fabrick of Animals. From this, the 
moft fimple, we may trace them back through a Variety of 
Forms, up to the moft perfc6l of the whole Tribe. 

Here the curious Naturalift may plainly difcover a Polype 
branching out like the common frefh Water one ot Mr. 
Tj-embleySy but flrongly fortified by Nature to fupport "itfelf 
in its turbulent Situation ; tor he will obferve this is defended 
by a tough horny Covering, and fixed by its Bafe to folid 
Bodies in the Sea, to fecurc itfelf from the infinite Number 
of Enemies, that every Moment furround it : Whereas the 
frelli Water one, being confined to the calm and fheltered 
Situation of Ponds and Ditches, does not ftand in need of 
fo neceffary a Provifion for its Defence. 



CHAP. 



Plate SYirr. 




Celliferous Corallines. J^ 

c H A p. IV. 
Of Celliferous Corallines. 

BY Celliferous Corallines, I mean thofe fmall plant-like 
marine Bodies, which adhere to Shells, Fums\^ &c. 
of a brittle, cruftaceous, and tranfparent Subftance ; and 
which appear, when magnified, to be fine thin Cells, the 
Habitations of fmall Animals conneded together, and dif- 
pofed in Variety of elegant Forms like Branches. All this 
kind effervefce with Acids. 

N**. I. CoralUna cellifera. ereSia, ramoftfftfna^ temrrhna^ ^piate xvni. 

J r Txg.a.A. 

pumoja. 

CoralUna pumila ercEia ramojior. R, S. p. 37. N'. 20. 
Soft-feathered Coralline. 

The Appearance of this Coralline in its firft or beginning 
State, is fo unlike itfelf in the latter or more perfe6l State, 
that one would be apt, at firft View, to take it for a different 
Species. 

The lower Part of N. i. Plate XVIII. at Fig. a, where 
it appears bare, without the feathered Branches, the Cells 
not being opened, is this firft State. In this Condition we 
find it, in the Hortus Siccus of Mr. Buddie^ in the Colledion 
of the late Sir Hans Sloane^ by the Name of, Fiicus mi?iimus, 
hirfutus jibrillis herbaceis fimilis. D. Doody. R. S. 330. 

But when it is in its perfed State, thefe tubulous Stalks 
rife. into beautiful plant-like Figures, with feathered Branches, 

F which 



34 Natural Hiftory of 

which are elegantly difpofed one above another, as in the up- 
per Part of the fame Figure, N°. i. at <^. When we examine^ 
it by the Microfcope, we find that each Branch is fubdivided 
in a twofold or dichotomous manner ; and each Dinfion of 
a Branch compofed of two Rows of Cells of a femi-cylindri- 
cal Form, articulated together, and placed alternately Side 
by Side, their Faces or Openings looking one Way : Each 
Cell has a fharp Point on the Top, ftanding outward ; and 
a black Spot in the Middle. Upon other Specimens I ob- 
ferved fraall teftaceous Figures on the upper Part of each 
Cell. 

Fig. J, fhews the magnified Appearance of the fmall 
Tubes, pa fling into the unopened Cells which form the 
Stalk ; from this arife the dichotomous Branches, with the 
Cells open, and black Spots in them. 5, fhews the te- 
ftaceous Spherules on the Top of each Cell. At 6", is a crofs 
Sedion of a Branch, to fhew the hollow Infide of the Cells. 
Z), fhews the upright Sedion of 3 Cells, with the Situation 
of the black Spots. 

Thefe black Spots are nothing but the dead Polypes, or 
Remains of the Animals, once inhabiting thefe Cells. Of 
which I had evident Proof in my laft Journey to the Sea-coaft. 
For after I had examined this CoraUine, with its Polypes 
alive in Sea-water (See £, Plate XVIII). I laid this Speci- 
men afide ; and, upon examining it again fome time after, 1 
found the lifelefs contraded Animals exhibited the Appear- 
ance above-mentioned. 

Thefe Polypes turning into teftaceous Bodies, opened a 
new Scene of Wonder to me. But the Minutenefs of thefe 
fhelly Figures would have been pafled over, without any fur- 
ther Notice, if it had not been for a Prefent I received from 

my 



Plate XIX 




Fig. a. A. 



Celliferoiis Corallines. 5^^ 

my worthy and ingenious Friend Mr. Peter CoUinfoft^ F. R. S. Plate xrx, 
of a Specimen of this Clafs ofCoralHnes, which he had fent ^~ 
him from America. Examining this carefully with the Mi- 
crofcope, I plainly difcovered it to be the conneded Nidus s^ 
or Matrix's of certain teftaceous Animals, like fmall Snails 
or NeritcE ; an Account of which I have had the Honour 
to lay before the Royal Society, in March 1753. 

That thefe little Snails are perfecfl Animals, no-body will 
doubt, who has thoroughly examined them ; and that the 
ultimate End of this curious branched Coralline, was made 
fubfervient to the Purpofe of introducing thefe little Creatures 
into Life : But fuppofe it is afked, How do thefe go on to 
produce their Kind ? This indeed will be difficult to an- 
fwer, unlefs we may by Analogy fuppofe, that thefe mi- 
nute Shell-fifh grow large, and become capable of fpawn- 
ing the whole Coralline, in the fame manner that the Buc- 
cinum of New York does its curious Matrices which are 
like long Bunches of Hops. See Plate XXXIII. Fig. a^ a \y 

Or, let us fuppofe, that the teftaceous Animal, now in 
its utmoft Perfedion, lays its Eggs ; thefe turn into vermi- 
cular-fhaped Polypes, which, after they have fixed them- 
felves to fome marine Subftance, rife up, and pu(h forth into 
Branches of fmall Polypes in their Cells, in a double Row, 
alternately placed in refpedl to one another ; each having its 
proper Cell, which is divided from the other by very thin 
Partitions : And each little Polype is fecured by an umbili- 
cal Ligament. 

From this State then of being fmall Polypes, we have ob- 
ferved, that they change into teftaceous Animals, connefted 

F 2 to 



3^ Natural Hiftory of 

to their Cells by the umbilical Ligament, till they are capable 
of providing for themfelves. 

But whether this Ligament depends upon the Parent- A.ni- 
mal, as in the Cafe of the veficular Coralline, Plate V. Fig. 
^y where the young Polypes are inferted in a tender llefhy 
Line, that paffes through the Middle of the Branches, we 
have not been able to diftinguiih, for want of Opportuni- 
ties of examining them often at the Sea-fide. 

Plate XX. N°. 2. Corallina celUfera ereEia^ ra??iofa &^ plumo/a, fphce- 
'^■''' ' rulas tejlaceas^ fwmna pai~te aviumque capiium formas^ a 
latere cellularwn^ ge?'ens. 
Bird's-head Coralline. 

This curious celliferous Coralline rifes from fmall Tubes, 
which unite, and pafs into Branches of femi-cylindrical 
Cells difpofed in two Rows, articulated one into another : 
Their Openings face the fame Way : On the Outilde of each 
Cell, we difcover by the Microfcope, the Appearance of a 
Bird's Head, with a crooked Beak, opening very wide ; the 
Ufe of which is as yet unknown to us, not having yet feen this 
Species recent in its proper Element. 

^The Balls, or little teftaceous Figures, are much the fame 
as in the former Species. This Coralline is of a glafly brit- 
tle Nature. 

Fig. a^ gives us the Appearance of this Coralline, as it is 
commonly found. The Specimen, from whence the Draw- 
ing was taken, was received, among other marine Produdlions, 
from the Sea-coafl near Dublin. 

Fig /Jj fhews a Branch with its Tuhuli^ Cells, and other 
Parts magnified. 

N°. 3. 



Plate XX. 






v^ 






* ' \ 









i V 



E^ Ve •' ^ .»v 



.yV2 



X 



r.. I -"ii/V 



,-,i . 






'^^- 



\ 



^ A' 



Celliferoiis Coralline^. 57 

N°. 3. Corallina cellifera 7ninor^ repens^ ra?nofa^ tubulis^ Ice- Plate xx. 
vibus^ inter dum hamojis fparfi?jt difpojitis^ fuck tejitfqiie al- '^' " ' 
ligata. 

Mufcus coralloides pumilus ramofus. Dood. Appendix, 

R.S. 3 so- 
Creeping Coralline. 

This is the moft common of all the celliferoiis Corallines, 
adhering to moft kinds of fubmarine Subftances. 

The Branches are dichotomous, or divide into two con- 
ftantly as they extend : The Cells are like inverted Cones, 
and their Openings, which are round, look one Way, and 
are commonly found defended by little Spines : The Or- 
der of the Cells rife in two Rows joined together, fo as 
to be alternately oppofite to each other. The Specimen 
magnified at Figure jB, was found full of black Spots 
in the Cells, which, as hath been already, mentioned, are 
nothing elfe but the dead Polypes. In other Specimens, 
we have obferved little teftaceous Balls at the Top of each 
Cell. 

The Joints appearing in the Angles of the Ramifications? 
as in the magnified Figure, at £, are conne6ted by fome 
fhort pHant Tubulin which ferve as fo many Hinges to the 
Branches, to play to and fro freely, and comply with the vi- 
olent Motion of the Sea. Thefe Hinges feem to confift of 
two fhort Tubes, one to each Row of Cells ; and are fo 
finely united to each Branch, that they feem infenfibly to 
pafs into the Cells of each. 

This Coralline differs from moft others in the Situation of 

its tubular Roots, which appear as in creeping Plants, to 

proceed from different Parts of their trailing Ramifications. 

4 Some 



58 Q Natural Hiftol*y of 

Some of thefe little radical Tubes are difcovered by the Mi- 
crofcope, to be full of Hooks, the better to fecure the Coral- 
line, when it adheres to foft fpongy Subftances. The Hooks 
on one of the Tubes are exprefled at Fig. F, in the Coral- 
line, B. the natural Size of which is exhibited at Fig. 6, 
N°. 3. 

When this Coralline is put into Vinegar, a ftrong Effer- 
vefcence enfues, till the ftony or coral- like Coat is deftroyed; 
and then the Cells, ft ill keeping their Shape, appear to be 
made of a thin pliable Membrane, like thofe of the Hinges 
and Roots : So that Roots, Hinges, and Cells appear now to 
be one continued tubulous Membrane, only modified into 
different Shapes. 

p.iatexx. N°. 4. Corallina cellifera minor, repem^ ramofa^ &^ fcru- 
Fjg- <■• c. pQja^ cellulis alternis a latere angulatis. 
Creeping ftony Coralline. 

This Coralline differs from the former in having angular 
Sides to its Cells, and in being of a more ftony brittle Tex- 
ture. 

While I was at Ram/gate, in Auguft 1754, I obfer\^ed the 
Polypes in the Cells, as defcribed at Fig. C; which is a mag- 
• nified Branch of Fig. c, N°. 4. in the fame Plate. 

Plate XX N°. 5. Corallina cellifera minima^ ereBa, rainofa^ cellulii 
f\g. d. D. infundibuU-formibus^ baji conjunSiis^ oribus patentijfimis^ fu- 
perne ciliatis., &* alternatim profninentibus. 
Ciliated Coralline. 

This very fmall Coralline arifes from many 'Tubulin which 
unite, and fend forth Branches of Cells of a Funnel-fhape, 

placed 



Plate XXI 




\ 



•, %■ 




Celliferous Corallines. jp 

placed alternately, and clofely united at the lower Part of 
the Sides : Their Entrances are very wide ; and the upper 
Part of them, which projeds, is full of fniall Hairs like Eye- 
laflies. Their Bafes are narrow, and feem to be jointed ; 
and if we look attentively in the Microfcope, we may difco- 
ver a fmall white Hair, which feems to pafs through the 
Middle of each Branch at the joining of the Cells. This Co- 
ralline bears teftaceous Bodies on the Front of the Cells, 
fomewhat refembling the upper Part of an Helmet ; and at 
the Sides of fome of tlie Cells, little Figures like Birds Heads, 
not unhke thofe of the fecond celliferous Coralline. 

At Fig. Z), we have the magnified Figure of this Coral- 
line : And at d, N^ 5. the natural Size of it. Of all this Clafs 
of Qorallines, this is one of the moft delicate and tender. 

N°. 6. Coral Una cellifera minima .^ fragilis, ramofa^ ^ ve- Plate xxi. 
Jiculifera^ colore eburmo celluUs tubtjormibus conjunBis, pan- 
lum arcuatisy &' fere oppojitis. 
Tufted Ivory Coralline. 

This Coralline, carefully examined in the Microfcope, ap- 
pears to arife from minute compreffed Globules, which have 
been depofited on a Fucus : In the Centre of each of thefe, 
we may obferve a fmall Hole, from whence proceed very 
(lender jointed Tubes, which pafs into Branches confifting ot 
double Rows of tubular Cells placed almoft oppofite, and 
united at the Sides ; but the Tops ftanding out a little : From 
the Side of thefe Branches proceed here and there fmall hol- 
low Veficles, which are very brittle, and full of fmall Specks. 
Clofe to one Side of the Veficles, we have obferved a fmall 
Tube, which, no doubt, is the Entrance into them. This 
Species comes very near to the Clafs of veficular Corallines; 
for in fome Specimens of this Species at the Sea-fide, we have 

lately 



40 Natural Hiftory of 

lately difcovered dead Animals in the Velicles : But on ac- 
count of their brittle ftony Nature, their having black Specks 
in their Cells, and their Branches being united by fmall tu- 
bular Hinges, they are introduced here. 

Fig. a., N°. 6. is the exadl Reprefentation of this Coralline, 
growing to a Piece of a Fucus. 

Fig. A^ gives the magnified Appearance of a Branch of it, 
as it rifcs from the Fucus, 

Plate XXI. N". 7. CoralUna cellifei'a mollis ramofijftma^ genicuUs ad lo- 



f j-r. b. B. 



ricd& fornia?n accedentibus. 

Mufcus coralloides fnollis, elatior^^ra?nofjJfimus, App. 

R-S.330. 
Co7'alli7ia geniculata mollis^ internodiis rotundis breviori- 

bus nojlras. Pluck. Mant. 56. 
Coat of Mail Coralline. 

This Coralline, which grows into larger Tufts and Bunches 
than the reft, confifts of many long, fliining, foft, and flip- 
pery Branches : Thefe are compofed of Joints of Cells, placed 
in Pairs Back to Back. The Opening of each is on a Slant 
near the Top, and looks the contrary Way to the other : So 
that the Pair together refembles a Coat of Mail, or Pair of 
Stays ; and the Entrances of the Cells look like the Places 
for the Arms to come out at. The Joints, or Pairs of Cells, 
arife infenfibly from Tubulin by which the Coralline adheres 
to its Bafe ; and at certain Seafons of the Year, we may ob- 
ferve fmall black Spots in the Cells, like fome of the reft of 
this Clafs. 

This Coralline is found in plenty along the Sea-coaft of the 
Illand of Sheppey ; and is frequently found creeping upon, 
and invefting the ftlk Coralline before defcribed. 

Fig. 



Celliferous Corallines. 41 

Fig. h^ N^ 7. reprefents the natural Appearance of this 
Coralline : This Specimen is but a fmall Part of fhe Co- 
ralline, >as it is commonly found. 

Fig. B^ is a Drawing from the Microfcope of a fmall 
Branch, aa it rifes from the T'ubuli. 

N°. 8. Coralltna cellifera mhrima, ramofa^ celliilis cofitpreffis^ pi?.'° ^.'^^i- 
obpofitis^ Jtliculce biirfee pajloris forjitam cemidans. 

Shepherd's-purfe Coralline. 

This moft beautiful Pearl-coloured Coralline adheres by 
fmall Tubes to Fucuss^ from whence it changes into flat 
Cells ; each fingle Cell like the Bracket of a Shelf, broad at 
Top, and narrow at Bottom : Thefe are placed Back to 
Back in Pairs, one above another, on an extremely flender 
Tube, that feems to run through the Middle of the Branches 
of the whole Coralline. 

The Cells are open at Top. Some of them have black 
Spots in them : And from the Top of many of them, a Fi- 
gure fcems to iffue out like a fliort Tobacco-pipe ; the fmall 
End of which feems to be inferted in the Tube that paffes 
through the Middle of the whole. 

The Cells in Pairs are thought by fome to have the Ap- 
pearance of the fmall Pods of the Shepherd's Purfe : By others, 
the Shape of the Seed-Veflels of the Flerb Veronica^ or Speed- 
well. 

Fig. ^, N°. 8. reprefents fome Branches in their natural 
,Size, creeping on the Stock of a Fiiciis, 

G Ffa:. 



42 Natural Hiftory of 

Fig. A^ reprefents a Branch with its fmall Tubes, magni- 
fied by Number 5 oiWilJo7i% fingle Microfcope. 

Plate xxii.N'. 9. Coralli7ia cellifera mintitijfima^ rainofa^ &' falcata:, 
celluUs Jjfnplicibus^ tauri cor?m facie invicem mferiis. 
BuU's-horn Coralline. 

This beautiful Coralline is one of the fmalleft we meet 
with : It rifes from Tubulin growing upon Fiiciis s ; and 
paffes from thence into fickle-fhaped Branches, confifting of 
fingle Rows of Cells looking, when magnified, like Bull's 
Horns inverted : Each one arifing out of the Top of the other. 
The upper Branches take their Rile from the Fore-part of the 
Entrance of a Cell, where we may obferve a fiifffhort Hair, 
which feem to be the Beginning of a Branch. 

The Opening of each Cell, which is in the Front of its 
tipper Part, is furrounded by a thin circular Rim ; and the 
Subftance of the Cells appears to confift of a fine transparent 
Shell, or Coral-like Subftance. 

Fig. ^, N". 9. is the natural Size of this minute Coral- 
line adhering to a Fucus. 

Fig. Bf fhews the Tubes, and the falcated Ramifications 
of the Cells, as magnified by the fifth Glafs of WlIJo?i^ Mi- 
crofcope. 

Plate XXI. ls[°. 10.- Coralliiia cellifera^ in'mutiffima^ falcata, &' cru- 
^^'^' ' Jlata^ celluljs caprkorntformibus ftmplkibus^ veftciilas ge^ 
rens. 

Goat's-horn Coralline. 

This very fmall capillary Coralline confifts of Branches 
of fingle Cells, fhaped like Goat's Horns inverted, placed 

one 



Plate SXI 




^''n 4\ 




Celliferous Corallines. 43 

one above another : On the Top of each is a fniall cir- 
cular Opening which inclines inward : At the Back of this 
arifes a line upright Hair near the Infertion of the next Cell 
above it. 

This CoraUine bears oval-Oiaped Vedcles, which are 
fpecked, or pointed Uke the celHferous Coralline, N*". 6. with 
a fmall Tube at the Back. 

Fig. c, N^. lo. Plate XXI. gives us the true Figure of this 
Coralline adhering to a Fucus. 

Fig. 6", exprefl'es an intire Piece, with its Veficles and 
jointed Tubes magnified by the fifth Glafs of Wilfon^ Mi- 
crofcope. 

This Coralline is nearly allied to the Sixth Coralline of this 
Clafs, on account of its Veficles, only the Cells of this are 
fingle with fmall Hairs rifing out of them ; aad the Cells of 
that are difpofed in Pairs. 

N°. 1 1 . Corallina anguiformis minutijfima^ non ramofa, Plate xxir. 

Snake Coralline. '^' '' 

This fingularly fhaped Coralline proceeds from an irregu- 
lar Tube, which is found creeping on the Fucoides purpureum 
eleganter plumofum. R. S. pag. 38. 

From very fmall Holes in the broadeft Part of this Irregu- 
lar winding Tube, there arife here and there fmall teftaceous 
white hollow Figures, exadlly refembling a Snake without 
the lower Jaw, in the Place whereof, is the Entrance into 
the Cell. 

G 2 Fig, 



44 Natural Hiftory of 

Fig. r, N°. II. is the natural Size of this minute Co- 
ralUne furrounding the Stalk of the Fucus. 

Fig. C, expreffes it magnified by the fourth Glafs of TVil- 
Jhns Microicopc. 

The Body of this Snake-like Cell, when magnified by the 
fecond Magnifier QiWilfon^ Microfcope, as at Figure jD, 
appears to be jointed in the Middle, and to confift of pa- 
rallel Rings. 



CHAR 



Articulated Corallines. 45 

CHAP. V. 

Of the Articulated Corallines. 

As the Corallines hitherto deicribed took their Rife from 
hollow, flexible, and horny Tubes, cither lingle, or ' 
many together ; and proceeding uniformly to their Termi- 
nations in Branches, confifting either of firaple Tubes, or 
of fuch as are furnifhed with Denticles, or Veficles, or both, 
or of connected Rows oi: Cells ; fo thefe, which we call ar- 
ticulated Corallines, are obvioufly different in their external 
Appearance, and in their Strudure ; though the Ufe of all 
the Kinds appear manifeftly to be the fame j viz. the Places 
of Abode of different Species of Polypes. 

This Kind then, carefully examined by the Microfcope, 
appears to conGft of fbort Pieces of a ftony or cretaceous 
brittle Matter, whofe Surface is covered with Pores, or Cells. 
Thefe ftony Pieces, or Joints, are united to one another by 
a tough, membranous, flexible Subftance, made up of many 
fmall Tubes of the like Nature, compaded together. 

When thefe are put into Vinegar, the ftony or cretaceous 
Part is foon diflblved, and leaves the other Part intire, which 
not only forms the ligamentous pliant Articulations ; but is 
likewife the Subjlratum^ and even forms the Cells, of the 
ftony Joints themfelves. 

Among the firft of thefe I fhall place ; 



4^ Natural Hiilory of 

Flue XXIII. N'. I. Corallina articidata clkhotoma., internodih fuhcylm- 
Fig. a. J. (iricis^ ceilulis rhomboideh^ ofnn'mo te&isj &' tubtdis mefn- 
hranaceis exiguis, coUigatis. 

Corallina jifiulofafragdh crajftor. J.B. 3. 811. R. 

Hid. 65. 
Mufcus coralloldes polygonoides falicornicB folio major. 

Bar. Ic. 1275. N^ 7. 
Corallina fiftidofa fragilis, i^itermdiis prelongis lavibus^ 
albisj farcif7ii?ium modo cateitatis. Pluck. Phytog. 
PI. XXVI. Fig. 2. 
Bugle Coralline. 

There is a fmaller Species of the fame, which differs only 
in the Diameter of the Branches ; and is known by the bo- 
tanic Writers by the following Names, vi^. 

Corallina fjlulofa, fragilis fubtilior. J. B. 3. 811. R. 
Hift. 66. 

Mufcus polygo?toides falicorniie folio minora feu bifidus. Bar. 
Icon. 1275. N<^. 8. 

This beautiful flony Coralline proceeds from tranfparent 
membranaceous Tubes, which enter into, and form, cylindri- 
cal Joints, compofed of ftony Lozenge-fhaped Cells, with a 
proper Entrance into each : Thefe furround the whole Sur- 
face of the Coralline. 

Fig. a^ N^ I. {hews the natural Size of the larger Bugle 
Coralline. ^ 

Fig. A^ is a Branch of it magnified, to fliew the Appear- 
ance of the Tubes, Joints, and Cells. 5, is a Piece of one 
of the Joints, that had been expofed to the Weather, higher 
magnified, where the Form of the Entrance into the Cells may 

be 



,. M, ij, y¥/*/^/ 



Plate xxnr. 




Articulated Corallines. 47 

be plainly feen. C, is a crofs Se6lion of this Piece, to fhew 
the internal Figure and Difpofition of tlie Cells. 

The Joints of the Coralline rife in a dichotomous Order ; 
that is, by a conftant progrefTive Divilion into two Parts, 
and are connedled together by fhort TiibuU of the fame Kind 
with thofe they took their Rife from. 

Thefe Tubes in the Water are exeeding pliable, which 
make them move fo freely, without breaking in the violent 
Agitations of the Sea. 

The Shape of the Cells is not always of a Lozenge Fi- 
gure : Sometimes we find them arched at Top, as at Z) ; 
and fometimes of the Shape of a CofKn, as feme of the upper 
Cells at B, 

When this Coralline has lain expofed for fome time on the 
Shore, it grows very hard, and white ; and the Partitions 
between the Cells become thinner and more diftindt, as at 
Fig. B. 

Though the following Corallines differ in their Size, and 
Form of their Ceils, and fome other Particulars, as their 
tubulous Roots ; yet as they anfwer the general Definition 
of this Clafs, and feem to follow in the Order of Nature, I 
have connefled them together : That we may perceive the 
Pores, or Cells of this Clafs the more diftindly, it is necelTary 
they fhould be viewed immediately on their being taken out 
of the Sea ; for as they dry, the cretaceous or coralline Mat- 
ter fhrinks, and unites the pore-like Cells on the Surface, 
fcarcely to be diftinguifhed from a poliilied Superficies, with- 
out the Help of the very befl Glaffes, 

2 N^ 2. 



48 Natural Hiftory of 

Plate XXIV. N"' 2. Coraliina Anglka. R. S. p. 33. N". i. 



Fig. a. A. 



Coraliina alba officinar'H7n. Park. 129* 
Coralline of the Shops. 

This Coralliae is fixed to Rocks and Shells by ftony Joints, 
Aviiich, as they rife, are united to others by extremely fine 
and fiender Tubes : lliefe may be difcovered by a good Eye, 
or a common Magnifier. As the Stems extend themfelves, 
they become pennated by Side- branches, which come out 
oppofite to each other, and are jointed in the fame manner ; 
the [oints of this Species are like the upper Part of an in- 
verted Cone, but a little comprefied : The whole Surface is 
covered over with very minute circular-fhaped Cells like 
Pores (See Fig. 5, and Fig. B i) where they are higher 
magnified. 

Fig. B 2, fhews the crofs Section highly magnified. 

Fig. ^, N°. 2. is an exadl Reprefentation of this Coralline 
as it was found growing to a Rock. 

If a Branch of this Coralline is put into Vinegar, thefe 
Cells are diffolved with the whole cretaceous Surface, inftead 
of which there appear Rows of minute Ramifications, which 
feem to have communicated with each of thefe Cells (See 
Fig. A,) 

Upon fome Specimens of this Coralline, we may obferve 
little fmall Figures like Seed-veflels, with which the Branches 
frequently terminate : They are alfo found on the Sides, as 
may be feen at Fig. A^ where they are magnified. 

This Branch was fteeped in Vinegar, which rendered the 
whole foft_, and from the little Knobs at the Ends and Sides, 

were 




. /u/n/-J y^/'A. *^r 



Articulated Corallines. 4p 

were fqueezed out little twifted Figures, like thofe at ^^ /, 
which are magnified higher at A 2. 

We frequently find this Coralline of different Colours, as ' 
red, green, a(h-coloured, and white ; bu: all of it^ by being 
long expofed to the Sun and Air on the Shore, becomes 
white. 

N*. 3. Corallina Anglka procumhem^ fegmentis brevibus. Plate xxiv 
Slender trailing E?igliJ}D Coralline. '^" '^ 

This Coralline feems to be a Variety of the former, which 
grows ftiff and ere6l, with large Joints ; whereas this hangs 
down, having very, flender Branches with fmall Joints (See 
N°. 3. in Plate XXIV}. The Colour of this feems to vary 
according to the Situation. 

N". 4. Corallma A?2glica ereSia^ ramulis denfe pennatis^ la?t-nztt xxiv, 
ceolce forma termmantibus^ fegmeittis ad utrwnque I at us pau~ ^'2' '' ^' 
lu/um comprejfts. 

Coralli7ia fqiiamata. Parkin. 1296. 

Upright Engli/Jj Coralline, with Spear-like Heads 
and flat Joints. 

This Coralline I received from the Reverend Mr. William 
Borlafcy of Ltidgvan in Coni-wall^ F. R. S. a very curious and 
ingenious Gentleman : To whom I am much obliged for 
many other Sea-produAions. 

It is moft frequently found of a light-green Colour ; and, 
polTibly, the Copper Mines, which abound on many Parts 
of the CorniflD Shore^ may affec^t the Colour ; as the ochry 
Eardi near Harwich does fome of the fecond Species with 
an Orange Colour. 

N°. 4. Plate XXIV. reprefents this CoralliBein its natural 
Form. 

H Fig. 



^o Natural Hiftory of 

Fig. C, is a Branch of it magnified, to fliew the Figure 
of the [oints. This has had its cretaceous Paris diiTolved by 
the Vinegar. Upon each joint may be difcovered the dif- 
ferent Scries of Ramifications, which lead to the Cells on 
the Surface : This will be more fully exemplihed in fome Si- 
milar foreign Sea-produ6lions hereafter. 

Plate xxiv.N*. 5. Corall'ma ramulis dichotomis, te?iensy cafillaribiis-, &^ 
'^' ''' ' rubenttbiis. 

Coralli?m rubens^ five mufcus marimis riibens. Park. 
1296. 

Reddifli Hair-like Coralline. 

This Coralline,, when magnified, appears to grow in 
Branches always dividing into two Parts, confifting of long 
cylindrical Joints connedied by very fmall TubuU ; when 
the ftony Part is diffoh^d in Vinegar, the fmall fibrous Ra- 
mifications, that correfpond with the minute Pores on the 
Surface, like the foregoing one, are eafily to be feen. 

N°. 5. Fig. e, is the natural Size. And 

Fig. Ey the magnified Appearance of a Branch of this Co- 
ralline. 

pute XXIV. N<*. 6. Corallina alba exigua^ ramulis dichotomis Jegmentis 
i-ig. «, z>. cornkulatis^ fucis minimis teretibus adnafcem. 
White {lender jointed Coralline. 

This Coralline dificrs from the foregoing, in liaving 
flronger and thicker Branches, and the Tops of the lower 
Joints diverfified with two projedting Points like Horns. 

Fig. d, N°. 6. exprefles a Tuft of this Coralline grow- 
ing on a Fucus, 

Fig. 



Articulated Corallines. ^i 

Fig. Z), lliews the manner of its growing, and the corni- 
culated lower Joints. 

N°. 7. CoraUina dichotoma^ capillis denfis^criJiatis^fpermopho-^^-^i^ xxiv. 
risy fucis minimis teretibus adnafccm. ^'S'-^' ^' 

Corallma cfijlata mimma. Barrell. pag. 1328. 
Mufctis coi'alloides crijiatus. Bar. Icon. 1296. N. 2. 
Crefted or Cock's comb Coralline. 

The Branches of this Coralline likewife go off in Pairs, or 
ill a dichotomous Order ; it grows in round Tufts, like 
the Creft or Topping on a Bird's Head. A Number of thefe 
Branches being fpread out like a Fan, and placed flat on one 
another, compofe thefe agreeable Creft-like Figures ; fomc 
of them are of a fine red, others green, with a white Edge- 
ing. They are generally found growing on a round {lender 
Fticus. On the upper Part of the Branches the Microfcope 
difcovers fome fmall Veficles ; from the Top of each of thefe 
arifes the Beginning of two other Branches, fo that they feem 
to be of Ufe in buoying up the Coralline. 

Fig. y, N". 7. is the natural Appearance of this Co- 
ralline. 

Fig. F, is a magnified Branch with the Veficles. 

N°. 8. CoraUina alba fpermophoros^ capillis tenuiffimis, Plate xxiv^ 

CoraUina mufcofa^ feu Mufcus marinus tenia capillofpermo- '^'^' ' 
pharos. Mor. Hift.Ox. PartIII.p.65T. S. 15.T. IX. £ 9. 
Seed-bearing Coralline. 

This exceeding fiender white Coralline appears under the 
Microfcope to bear little Veficles, in the Form of Seed-veffels, 
which feem to buoy it up in the Water ; out of each of thefe 
arife two fine fiender Hairs, and from each of which rife 

H 3 other 



5*2 Natural Hiftory of 

otli^r Veficles ; from thefe proceed two fine pointed Hairs, 
which finiilies this beautiful minute Coralline. There feems 
to be a great Affinity between this and the crefted Coralline ; 
tho', from the whole of its Appearance, there feems juft Rea- 
fon to make it a diftinfl Species. 

The Vtlicles, on the ftrideft Examination, appear to have 
no Opening into them. 

N°. 8. Fig. g, is the natural Appearance, but in general 
the Tufts are fuller. 

Fig. G, is a fmall Sprig, with the douUe Row of Veficles 
magnified. 

fiate XXIV. N", 9. CoralltJia pliimofa nivea, fuco ?mnimOy tereti adnafce7U. 
^^' '' ' Snow-white downy Coralline. 

Among: fome uncommon Corallines, which I received 
from my worthy Friend the Reverend Mr. Borlafe, near 
Penzance in Cornwall^ I met with this mofl curious minute 
one, adhering to a Fucus. At iirfl: I took it for fome white 
Down of Feathers; but, upon Examination, I found it to be 
an articulated Coralline, with the joints united by Tubulin as 
perfed as in the larger Kinds. 

Fig. h, N°. 9 Plate XX IV. is the natural Size of it, ad- 
hering to a Piece of a Fucus. 

Fig. H, is the magnified Appearance of feveral Pieces of 
the Coralline, faftened by fmall Globules to the Fibres of the 
Fucus., likev/ife magnified. From thefe Globules rife 3 or 4 
cylindrical Joints. 

F'ig. H I, expreffes the Globule and Joints magnified 
hio'her. The whole Surface appears here to be covered over 
with hoUov/ Squares, 

Ohfer- 



Articulated Corallines. 5'5 

Ohfervatiom on fo?ne of the articulated CcraUines of 
Jamaica : 

Thefc are introduced here, to fliew the Operations of Na~ pI^'^^'^^'- 
ture in the warmer CHmates ; and to fet before us in a clearer 
Light, the curious Conftrudion of the CoraiHnes of our own. 
Our articulated Corallines, as was obferved before, are fo 
den{e, except the firft, and their Surfaces fo fmooth, that 
the Microfcope can but juft difcover to us their Pores. The 
TVeJl-Indian Corallines arc generally of a loofer Texture : The 
naked Eye can eaiily difcern the Pore-like Cells all over the 
Surface ; and at the fame time very plainly diftinguifh the 
Tubes that connect the Joints. 

When the cretaceous Matter is diffolved in Vinegar, we 
may obferve, with the Microfcope, the Hinge-like Tubes 
continued in Ramifications, that expand themlelves over the 
flat Superficies of each Joint, and end in little Cups, that 
are united at the Sides, fo as to form a Surface like an Ho- 
neycomb : Each miiiute Cup has a fmall Hole at the Bottom, 
by which it communicates with a particular little Tube of 
one of the lefi^r Branches ; and the Top of each Cup cor- 
refponds with a Pore on the cretaceous Surface. 

Fig. a and b^ Plate XXV. fiiew t\^'o Species of thefe 
CoraiHnes in their natural Size. 

Fig. A^ fhews the Pores of one of the Joints of Fig. a 
magnified. 

Fig. A I, fhews the regular Ramifications ending in flat 
Surfaces of little connected Cups, joined together like an Ho- 
neycomb, after the cretaceous Matter of the Joint, at Fig. A^ 
was taken off by the Vinegar, 

Fio;, 



^4 Natural Hiftory of 

Fii>;. Bj and B i, fliew the Joint and ramihed Tubes of 
the lefTcr Species at Fig. b^ magnilied when the cretaceous 
Saif?ice v/as taken off in Hke manner. 

I ihall introduce a third Species of articulated CoralHne, 
on account of its Singularity ; it feems to be the Corallina 
fijlulofa Jamakenjh Candida cum mtermdiis brevijftmis^ ^ 
qiiafi filo trajeSiJSy of Plukenet. I fhall call it the Rofary 
or Bead- Coralline of Jamaica (See Fig. c, Plate XXV). 

The Fiw. C, fliews one of tlie Beads magnified ; Tind on 
the lower Part, where the next Bead is laid open to difcover 
the Tube, we may perceive regular Rows of fmall Pipes, 
that lead from the middle horny Tube, through the creta- 
ceous Subftance to the Cells on the Surface, at^. 

The Tuft of Hair-like Tubes, at C, which are to be (ttn. 
at the Top of each Branch, appear to be the Ramifications, 
that belong: to the next Bead that is to be formed. 

When the cretaceous Part is diffolved in Vinegar, we 
find many Seed-like Paiticles difpofed among Cells of an 
Heart-fhape, as at Fig. C i. 

To thefe I fhall add another Sea-produ6lion, upon ac- 
count of its approaching to the articulated Corallines, in its 
manner o'^ growing. 

I received it, among many other Varieties, from the Sea- 
coafl of the IJls of JFight. It appears in the Microfcope to 
be tubular, and different from any thing I have yet met with 
from our Coafis. I have called it, 

■?\:^xz\\Y\\.Co7'allina tubtdata tenera^ dicbotoma, ^ piijlulofa, 
iit;. b. B. Dichotomous tubular CoraHine. 

This appears, through the Microfcope, full of Warts and 

Puftules, 



Articulated Corallines. ^5* 

Puftules, with a fmall Speck in the Middle of each. It feems 
to be of an horny tranfparent Nature. Each Pair of Joints or 
Branches are inferted in the Top of the next Joint or Branch 
below them, as in fome of the fmaller articulated Corallines 
juft now defcribed. 

Fig. bj is the natural Size of a fmall Part of this Co- 
ralline. 

Fig. 5, is a fmall Piece of it magnified. 



CHAP, 



(^6 Natural Hiftory of 

c H A p. V. 
Of the Keratophyta. 

N'EXT in Order to the Corallines, may be ranked the 
Frutices coralioides, or Sea-flirubs ; now more gene- 
rally known among Naturaliih by the different Appellations 
oi Lithophyta^ Lithoxyla^ or Keratophyta , Epithets intended to 
convey an Idea of their Compofition, which, at firft View, 
feems to confift partly of a woody or horny, partly of a 
ftony or calcareous, Subftance, varioufly difpofed with refpedl 
to each other. 

The general Form of thefe Bodies approaches to that of 
Shrubs, l>aving a Root- like Bafe, by which they adhere to 
fome folid Support in the Ocean ; and a Stem or Trunk, 
and Branches differently difpofed ; fome riling up in one or 
more diflind Twigs, and thefe fubdivided into fmaller and 
feparate Ramifications ; while others have their fmaller 
Branches connedted in fuch a manner, as to form a curious 
Net-like Strudlure : From this Diverfity of Figure, and ex- 
ternal Appearance, they commonly borrow the Names, by 
which they are known in the Cabinets of the Curious, as Sea- 
Fans, Feathers, and the like. 

But as it is not my Deiign to write an exprefs Treatife on 
this Subjed:, I fhall only obferve, That moft of thefe Kerato- 
phyta when perlect, if their Strudure is carefully examined, 
exhibit the following Appearances : 

Firjij A woody kind of Bafe or Root, which either ftill 
adheres, or fhews that it has adhered, to fome folid Body, as 
Rocks, Corals, large Shells, or the like, 

2 View 



of Keratophyta. 5*7 

View this Bafe attentively, and it appears to condfl of lon- 
gitudinal Fibres lying clofe Side by Side, and conned ed in- 
feparably without Violence, running from the Circumference 
of the Bafe to the ridng Trunk, along which they are dif- 
pofcd in like manner; and the fame Texture n):iy by good 
Glafles be traced to the Extremities of the Branches. Thefe 
GialTes difcover, that what to the naked Eye fcemed to be Fi- 
bres, are indeed fmall Tubes, of which the whole Shrub con- 
iifts, but compreiled, and fhrunk in. ' 

If we cut the Trunk, or any large Branch of thefe Kerato- 
phyta tranfverfely, and examine their Strudure nicely, we 
may plainly difcover, not only the Courfe of thefe longitu- 
dinal Tubes, but, like wife, that they are circularly difpofed 
about the Centre of the Trunk, fomcwhat in the fame man- 
ner as appears in the annual Circles of Wood, with this Dif- 
ference however, that in the Keratophyta the Circles do not 
adhere fo clofely to each other as in Wood ; but appear 
plainly to be fuperinduced, and often with fome heteroge- 
neous Matter intervening. 

The Part we have hitherto defcribed, is that which fome 
Naturalifts have called the woody Part of the Keratophyta ; 
others, from its affording when burnt a flrong Smell like 
burning Horn, the horny. 

And this, in all the various Species of this kind of Bodies, 
however different in Size, Figure, and external Appearance 
they may be, appears almofl: uniformly to be the fame, ex- 
hibiting to the View a fimilar Strudure, and the fame Princi- 
ples, when chemically analyfed. 

Upon this horny or woody Part is fuperinduced a kind of 
ftony or calcarious Coat, covering both Trunk and Branches 
to their very Extremities. 

I The 



^8 Natural Hiftory 

The calcarioiis Coat commences thin where the Trunk 
begins, grows thicker as the Branches advance ; and the 
youngefL Fibres have, generally, by much the largeft Propor- 
tion, if not the largeft Qaantity furrounding them: This 
Part iikewife, when throv/n into the Fire, yields fomething 
of a marine horny Smell. If we examine this Coat attentive- 
ly, even with the naked Eye, we may difcover in many 
kinds, regular Orders of Pores or Cells ; and, viewed by the- 
Mrcrofcope, it conftantly appears to be an organical Body, 
and not the accidental Concretion of adventitious Siibftances, 
like the indurated Cruft upon Mofs and other Vegetables in 
petrifying Waters, but a regular Congeries, like the Cells in 
which Animals have been formed, or exifted. 

Moftofthefe kinds of Bodies, whan per feEi^ exhibit the 
Appearances defcribed \ but we often fee thefe horny Shrubs 
in the CoUedions of Naturalifts, without any calcarious Co- 
vering at all. It muft not however be immediately de- 
termined, that they were fo formed ; fince it is more than, 
probable, that they have been divefted of thefe Coverings,, 
by the Violence of the Waves, and other hke Accidents ; by 
which they have been ftripped of a Part, that feems not 
lefs eflential to thefe Bodies, than the Bark is to Trees. This 
accidental Change in their external Habit, has, neverthelefs,, 
occafioned fome Difficulty to the Botanifb ; and induced 
even Boerhaave himfelf,. to divide them into two Families, 
calling thofe that had their native calcarious Covering T^itano- 
Keratophyta ; and thofe that were divefted of it, which on; 
the Sea-coaft will foon happen, only Keratophyta. 

Notwithflanding thefe ftrong Circumftances, to prove the 
animal Strudure of thofe fubmarine Bodies, yet as there are 
many curious and ingenious Perfons, who ftill remain uncon- 
vinced, it becomes necefiary for us to fcrutinize into the Na- 
ture of them with more Exadnefs. 

Specimens 



of Keratophyta. 5*5? 

Specimens of a very young Growth, viz. 2 or 3 Inches high 
have the Appearance of a fmall calcaneus Sprig. When this 
is differed length-ways, and viewed with Attention, we find 
in the Centre, a {lender horny Tube, with fome whitiOi 
Matter in it Hke Pith ; next to this Tube are other very fmall 
Tubes of a calcarious Subftance, that adhere to it, and fur- 
round it, covering over even the Point of the Top. 

In more advanced Specimens, where they branch out, 
thefe fine calcarious Tubes fend out little Cells of Animals ot 
the Polype kind, with proper Openings to them all. Thefe 
Cells are difpofed along the Branches always in fome regular 
Order, with great Exadnefs, according to the particular 
Species ; not like the Nefts of Infeds on Plants, which arc 
accidentally placed here and there ; and which many ima- 
gine them to be ; but in much the fame prccife Form and 
Manner, that we obferve in the Cells of the Corallines. 

From thefe Cells the Animals have been difcovered ex- 
tending themfelves, as well to procure Food for themfelves, 
as Materials for the Increafe of this fuprizing Strudure : But 
this will be made clearer to us from fome following Obfer- 
vations. 

When Infeds infefl; a Vegetable, to devour its Leaves, 
and build their Nefts upon its Trunk and Branchs, they are 
rarely obferved to cover the whole Bark from the Bottom of 
the Trunk, to the utmoft Extent of its Ramifications : But, . 
admitting this fhould happen to be the Cafe, I believe it will 
be allowed, no-body ever faw Plants, fo totally incrufted over 
with the Cells of Infeds, live and flourifh after. It has been 
generally remarked, that real Sea-vegetables, of which there 
are a confiderable Variety, are as much fubjed to be attacked 
by different kinds of Sea-Infeds, who build their Nefts on 

I 2 them, 



6o Natural Hiftory 

them, as the Land-Plants are to their kinds ; but then, it is 
as commonly obferved, that they fare much ahke, that is, 
they periOi and decay. 

The Herring-bone CoralUne defcribed at Fig. a, Plate X. 
refembles thefe Keratophyta in the Manner of its Growth very 
nearly, except in the IncruHiation, and is a miniature Figure 
of that pennated Species, called in the WeJl-hicUes the Sea- 
Feather. , 

In order to fhew the great Affinity there is between the 
Strudure of the pennated Keratophyta^ and the veficulary 
Corallines with Denticles, I fhall here give a fliort De- 
fcription of a curious one from Sardi7iia^ called the Sea- 
Feather, which I lately met with in the curious CollecTtions 
of Mr. Bahr^ and Mr. Pond^ Fellows of the Royal So- 
ciety. 

This beautiful marine Produdion is about a Foot high r 
The fmall Phmce, or Side-Sprigs, are placed alternately op- 
pofite to each other, in a regular Order on each Side of the 
main Stem. Thefe are furniflied with feveral little Clufters 
of fmall Tubercles placed at equal Diftances, and furround- 
ing the Stem generally three together. When they are mag- 
nified, they have much the Appearance of the bearing Buds 
of Fruit-Trees. In this dry Specimen tht;ir Tops bend in to- 
wards the Stem of the Branch that fupports them. 

The whole Surface is covered over with a calcarious Sub- 
ftance, like mofl: of this Clafs. 

Fig. S, in Plate XXVI. reprefents one of the Ramifications, 
with the main upright Stem ; this, we may obferve, has a 
very near Refemblance to the Form of the Sea-Fir Coralline, 
Plate I. Fig. b-, pag. 4.. 

Fig. 



PlateJIVI. 




JM^^J. 



of Keratophyta. 6l 

Fig. T^ is a microfcopica] Reprefentation of two of thefe 
Divifions, with their little Tubercles. 

One of thefe Diviiions being put into an acid Menflrawn^ 
the calcarioiis Matter was eafily diflblved, and the two Side- 
Tubercles, at Fig. /^, were exhibited to View, divefted of 
their CrufI: or calcarious Covering ; and here we plainly dif- 
covcred two Polypes with their Claws or Te?itaculi contraft- 
ed. Thefe, we perceived, were both united to the main 
Body of the Animal, by a flender flefhy Subflance that pro- 
ceeded from the Bottom of each. This flefhy Subftance, that 
conftitutes the Centre of the Stem, or main Body of the 
Animal, v/e can eafily trace through the Middle of the Stems 
and Branches of the Keratophyta^ when the calcarious Co- 
vering; is taken off. 

In the fame manner, v/e may perceive the Polypes by 
Pairs inferted into the central flelliy Stems of the veliculary 
Coralline, N°, 7. Plate IV. at Fig. 6", and in N\ 8. Plate V^ 
at Fig;. A. 

I have now before me Specimens, that prove the horny 
Circles, which furround and compofe the Stem and Branches, fiJ. c. a^' 
to be the Work of Animals ; one particularly of the Kerato- 
phyta^ or Sea-fans, called by the celebrated Liirmceus^ Flabel- 
lum Feneris (See Plate XXVI. Fig. A) ; which, by fome Ac- 
cident, has had one of the main Stems belonging to the 
Pranches broke quite acrofs, at Fig. B. But the broken Parts 
have been kept near to one another by the fmall reticulated 
Side-branches, at Fig, D. The Animals, in the Progrefs of 
their Tubes upwards from the Trunk, Fig. /iT, as foon as 
they met with this Obftru6lion of the broken Stem, turned 
off to one Side, and proceeding along the reticulated Branches, 
towards Z), covered over the vacant Spaces with their horny 

and 



Natural Hiftory 

and calcarious Matter. At the darl^ Part near Z), the cal- 
carious Tubes are taken off, on purpofe to fliew that the 
horny Parts underneath, which ftill have the Appearance of 
Tubes, have taken the fame Courfe and Diredlion with the 
calcarious ones, that fucceeded and covered them. After 
this they made a fhort Turn, to gain the broken End of the 
upper Part of the Stem of this Branch ; and from thence 
they continued their Progrefs along it towards the finer Ra- 
mifications, as ufual. 

Fig. £, reprefents two calcarious Tubes magnified : Thefe 
were cut off from the cortical Part of the Trunk, near Fig. L, 
The component Parts of the calcarious Matter are fo mag- 
nified, that the particular Shape of them may be diftinguidi- 
,ed, which is not unlike that of the red Coral. 

Fig. F and 7, reprefent a fmall Sprig magnified, that was 
taken from the Top of this Keratophyton^ at Fig. 0. 

Fig. G, is a fmall Ramification of this Sprig, with the 
calcarious Surface thinly taken off, to difcover the three 
Tubts, that run juft under the Surface ; the two Side ones ap- 
pear to have fmall Holes in them, as if the Animals commu- 
nicated with the 2 Rows of Cells on the Sides. By cutting 
another very thin Slice, we difcover both the horny Tube in 
the Middle, and the two Rows of Cells ; which are both ex- 
preffcd on the opponte Ramification, at Fig. H. 

In each of thefe Cells we plainly difcover a fmall Polype, 
of the Size of the Figures at N^ and of the fame Shape with 
the magnified Figures at M. This Specimen was lately 
brought from the Weji-hidies ; the Animals were very diftin- 
guiQiable, but contracted : The dark Holes on the Sides of 
the Stem, and lower Branch of this magnified Sprig, F and 



of Keratophyta. 63- 

/, are the Holes from whence the Polypes extend theni- 
felves. 

Fip-. /, is the lower End cut Hoping ofF, to fnew the Ca- 
vities of the Tubes and Cells. 

In the Centre of the Sedion is the End of the compreffed 
horny Tube. The fmall reticulated Branches of this Kerato- 
phytoji are much compreffed ; and when we view them in 
Fronr, their thin Edge flands towards us. 

Fig. K^ is the horizontal Seflion of this great Branch, 
fliewing the feveral circular Layers of contraded Tubes,, 
which now look like the annular Circles of Wood. 

In the fame Kcratophytoii, or Sea-Fan, is another remark- 
able Inftance of the Animals forming the horny Part of the 
Branches. 

This Specimen appears to have the Progrefs of its Growth 
ftopt by fome impending Rock, or other Accident ; Part of 
its upper Branches appearing as if cut off in a Line horizon- 
tally. Fig. c. This we obferve has diverted the Courfe ot 
the Animals back the Way they came, fo that we find many 
of the late formed Cells covered over, and confufed with an 
irregular Appearance of the calcarious Matter. This we can 
perceive, as far as we can trace the Animals back in their Re- 
treat ; and, upon taking off the calcarious Matter, we find, 
that the horny Subftance, which they have depofited fince 
their Return, had filled up moft of the vacant Places, in that 
Pait of the Reticulation, 

Befides the horny and woody Subftance of the Stem and' 
Branches of thefe Keratophyta^ I have lately met with one 
from South Carolina^ in the CoUedlion of Mr. Peter Colli?jfo?ty. 
E. R. S. whofe inward Parts are intirely of a fpongy Tex- 
ture,, 



64 Natural Hiftory 

turc, and the whole Subftance of it, feels as light as 

Cork. 

The outward Surface is compofed of a mealy friable Mat- 
ter of the Colour of red Lead, not unlike the Covering of 
the common red Coral, as it is brought to us, when firft 
taken out of the Sea, but fuller of little ftarry Holes. The 
Matter that compofes the Cells which lies immediately under 
this, has fome Degree of Tenacity, and the internal Part is 
ftill more compact, and conlifts of a faint red fpongy Sub- 
fiance. 

The Surface of the principal Stems are furrounded by pa- 
rallel Tubes : Thefe Tubes we may trace up along the 
Branches, till they change infenlibly into Rows of Cells, as 
we may obferve in fome of the celliferous Corallines. 

Fig, P, Plate XXVI. is a Reprefentation of a fmall Piece 
of this fpongy Keratophyton, in its natural Proportion. 

Fig. ^ is a Piece of the Top of one of the Branches, cut 
perpendicularly through the Middle, to {hew the Situation 
of the Cells. Thefe Rows of Cells furround the young 
Branches on all Sides ; and the fpongy Parts between them 
appear in the Microfcope to be full of irregular tubular Ca- 
viiies. 

The internal fpongy Part of this Species is more intimately 
united to the cellular cortical Part, than in any other Species 
we have yet feen. 

Fig. i?, is the horizontal Sedion of the fame Branch, to 
fhevv the Difpofition ot the feveral Rows of Cells, furround- 
ing the fpongy central Part. 

I have obferved, in fome Specimens of the pennated Kera- 
tophylon^ or Sea-Feather, that, when the Whole, or Part of 

it, 



of Keratophyta. 6^ 

it dies, the Animal of the Milkpora Coral Kind frequently 
incrufts its dead Branches with a white coral Matter, fo that 
many Perfons have been deceived by not examining it care- 
fully, and have taken it for a calcarious, inftead of a flony, 
Incruftation. But, bciides the Difference of the Materials of 
which thefe Coverings are compofed, the Irregularity of the 
Coral is eafily to be diftinguiOied, from the great Exadnefs 
of the natural Incruftation. 

Another Obfervation naturally follows this ; and that is, 
we never find upon one and the fame Species of Keratophy- 
to7i, two different kinds of calcarious Incruftations. Not- 
withftanding I have feen three different Species of KeratO' 
phyta adhering to one Piece of Rock-coral ; and in the 
fame Piece, Part of a dead Keratophyton incrufted with the 
Coral. 

The Particles of this cortical Cruft, which are of a pecu- 
liar Figure in each Species, are often deeply impreffed into 
the laft Row of Tubes, which are now become woody or 
horny, from having their calcarious Parts mixed with the 
glutinous Parts of the Animal, and are the prefent Surface 
of the inner Part. 

No Bark, Membrane, or other outfide Covering, are ever 
found on this Genus of marine Produdlions, except this cel- 
lular calcarious Coat, which Oievvs it to be its natural one. 

Whoever has carefully examined the upright and crofs 
Sedions of Trees and Shrubs, or even the Stems of Sea- 
plants, wiU find, that the longitudinal Veffels of the woody 
Parts are always conneded together by lateral Fibres, or 
have lateral Tubes. But on the niceft Enquiry we could 
make with the Microfcope, we could never difcover any of 
thefe connecting Fibres, or Tubes, proceeding trom the Pith 

K to 



66 Natural Hiftory 

to the Circumference, among the compreffed longitudinal 
Tubes and Veflels of thefe Keratophyia ; fo that the Vifci- 
dity, derived from the Animals, feems to be the chief Caufe 
of thcfe Tubes uniting lo clofely together \ for in fome par- 
ticular Specimens from the hotteftClimate^ they form a Body 
much harder than Wood, efpecially after they are become 
very dry. 

If we examine the ftony red Coral of the Mediterranean 
Sea, we fhall find a great Affinity between it and the Kera- 
tophyta^ in Texture, and chemical Produdions ; only the 
Ramifications are very fliort, and the Tubes turn to Stone 
inftead of Horn. But if we confider the Courfe of the Tubes 
in each, the Manner of their furrounding the Stem, aug- 
menting its Circumference and that of the . Branches, its 
rough, friable, bark-like Surface, together with the ftarry 
Openings of the Cells, we muft think they are not far re- 
moved from each other, in the great Scale of Nature. 

"We frequently meet with Specimens among the reticu- 
lated Keratophyta^ where the Animals, in their Progrcfs up 
the Stems and Branches, pafs with their Tubes over, and in.- 
clofe, fmall Shells, and other extraneous Bodies. 

Something of the fame kind is found in the Progrefs of the 
Animals, that form the red Coral, the Tubes of thefe are 
often found furrounding, and fpread upon a great Variety of 
Subftances. 

As many of the Sea-plants, I mean thofe that are undoubt- 
edly of a vegetable Nature, difcoverfome kind ofSeed-veflels, 
we fhould naturally expert they would be manifeft enough on 
the largeft kind of this Tribe of Sea-produdlions ; for we have 
been informed, from very good Authority, that, upon the 
Coafl of Norway^ fome of thefe Species have been feen ta 

extend 



'late XXVir 




of Keratophyta. 67 

extend themfelves 1 6 Feet in Length ; whereas, I believe, 
no-body has yet feen the leaft Tendency to Frudtification in 
thefe Bodies, unlefs what appears in the cellular cortical Part 
fhould by any be deemed fo ; notwithftanding Obfervation, 
and many Experiments, fhew us plainly that this has much 
greater Affinity to the Work of Animals. 

Laftly, The chemical Experiments, that have been made 
on thefe Bodies, are a ftrong Proof, if there were no other 
Demonftrations, of their being animal. 

I need not mention any other to the curious, than the great 
Quantity of volatile Salts, that may be extracted from them, 
and the ftrong Smell they yield, when burnt, of roafted 
Oyfters. 

We have as yet met with but two kinds of Keratophyta on 
thefe Coafts, and even thefe are rare. The firft is ; 

N®. I. Keratophyton JiabeUlforme-, cortice vermcofo d?^(5^//t-PiateXxviL 

Rc\ Fig. a, 

. 0. pag. 32. ^ 

Warted Sea-fan. 

This was found on the Coaft of Cornwall. The Outfide 
of it is covered over with a Cruft, full of little Lumps like 
Warts ; which, when diffolved in Vinegar, difcover the con- 
traded Bodies of Polypes, with eight Claws. 

Fig. /J, N®. I. reprefents a fmall Sprig of this Keratophyto7i. 

Fig. A^ and ^ r, are two Views of one of the Warts 
magnified. 

Fig. yf 2, is the Appearance which the Polype made, 
when the cretaceous Matter was diffolved. 

Fig. ^3, reprefents the Particles magnified, thatcompofe 
the Incruftation. 

K 2 N°. 2. 



68 Natural Hiftory 

Plate xxvii.N®. 2. Keratophytofi dichoto?7ium, caule &' ramulis leviter 
^'^' ^" comprejfis. R. S. p. 32. 
Sea-willow. 

This was found on the Coaft near Margate^ and fome 
Specimens of it have been lately received from Irela?id. 

On both Edges of the flat Branches are regular Rows of 
little riflng Cells in the calcarious Part, with fmall Holes for 
an Entrance to each. 

Fig. gt N°. 2. is a fmall Sprig of this Keratophytony in 
its true Proportion. 



CHAP. 



Plate ISVHt. 






1 A 

I 



B 



•■ ^^'^l 



f. 





J?' Ji^i^/a y:-i{4r,. 



of the EscHARA. 6p 

C H A p. VI. 

Of the Efchara. 

1 "THOUGH thefe Bodies properly belong to the Milk- 
' pora, yet, as I have generally followed the celebrated 
Ray, I (hall keep to his Appellations ; adding fuch a De- 
fcription to each, as may enable the Naturalifts eafily to rank 
them in their proper Places. 

My Author's Charadleriftic of this Clafs is, that their Sur- 
faces fhould refemble that of a Web of Cloth. And the Mi- 
crofcope informs us, that they conlifl: of Arrangements of very 
fmall Cells, whofe Surfaces appear much in that Form. 

The very near Refemblance, that the two firfl: of the fol- 
lowing "Efchara bear to Leaves o{ Plants, has given Occafion 
to the botanic Writers to clafs them among the Fucuss, 

N°. I. Efchara foliacea, millepora, tenera a7iguJlior, foliolis pkte 
qtiaji abfcij/isj &'celiulis oblongis alterfiis iitrhiqiie inJiruEla. ^\^^a^A. 
Fucus marinus, fcrupofus, albidtis, angujlior.^ comprejfus 
extremitatibus quaji abjcijjis. H. Ox. III. pag. 646. 
R. S. p. 43. 

Narrow-leaved Hornwrack. 

The eafy Transition in the Order of Nature, from the laft 
Clafs which was the Keratophyta, to the firft of this, is re- 
markable ; for, in this Species, the Rows of Cells continue to 
proceed from fmall Tubes, that unite together, and form a kind 
of Stalk : This divides, as it rifes, into narrow Leaves, made 
up of regular Rows of oblong Square fliaped Cells, placed 
alternately by each other, and oppofite to an equal Number 
on the other Side of the Leaf, like the Honeycomb : From 

thefe 



70 Natural Hiftory 

thefe Leaves proceed other ftill fmaller foHaceous Ramifica- 
tions, many of which feem to be connedled at the lower Part 
by Tiihuli, as in the Corallines ; by which Means they can 
ply to and fro more freely in the Water. 

Fig. ^, N^ I. gives the natural Appearance of this Co- 
ralline. 

Fig. A^ reprefents two Leaves, with their Tubuli and Cells 
mao-nified. 

Fig. 5, is a crofs Sedion of one of the Leaves at A^ View- 
ing the Partition, and inner Form of the Cells. 

plate xxtx.N^. 2. Efchara foliacea, Millepora^ fponglofui cellulis ar- 
f ]g. a. A. Qiiath alternn utriiiqiie inJiruSia, 

Fucus telam liiieam^ fericeamve^ textura fua cemulans, 
R. S.N^Q. p. 42. 

Broad-leaved Hornwrack, 

This Coralline, when frefh taken out of the Sea, is of a 
fpongy foft Texture, and fmells very fifhy j but when it has 
lain for fome time on the Shore, it becomes ftiffand horny, 
like fome Sort of withered Leaves, Both Surfaces, when ex- 
amined by Glaffes, appear to be covered with Cells ; and, 
when a Piece of it is cut acrofs, one may difcover the thin 
Membrane that ferves as a Bafe to the Cells of each Surface. 

The Form of the Cells is very remarkable, each one being 
arched at the Top, and contracted a little at the lower Part 
of the Sides, to make Way for the Arches of the two next 
adjoining Cells, fo that, by this particular Conftrudlion, no 
Room is loft. The Entrance of the Cells is immediately 
under the Arch of each Cell, and the Walls of the Cells 
feem to be fortified with Spines. 

The 



Plate 2^XK. 



.^.1 




i 



of t/je EscHARA. 71 

The celebrated DoAor Ber7jard yujfteu dlfcovered fmall 
Polypes extending themfelves out of thefe Cells, which he 
has defcribed in the Memoirs of the Acad'emy of Sciences 
for the Year 1742. 

Upon examining fome Specimens lately, I difcovered, at 
the Entrance of many of the Cells, a fmall teftaceous Body, 
like a bivalve Shell. 

The Figure of the Cell, with the Shell in it^ is magnified 
at £, Plate XXIX. It is of a tranfparent Amber-colour, fo 
clear that one may fee the dead Animal through it, repre- 
fented by the black Spot. 

Fig. a^ N°. 2. gives us the natural Appearance of a leafy 
Branch of this Coralline. 

Fig. A^ is a Part of a Leaf magnified to fhew the fuperfi- 
cial Figure of the Cells, and the Manner in which they are 
difpofed. 

Fig. 5, fhews a crofs Section of a Leaf, and difcovers the 
feveral Partitions of the Cells. 

Fig. C, fliews the fame Cells in fingle Ranges, or Sur- 
faces, creeping on a Fucus^ with the Cells of the common 
Sea-Infed that infefts all marine Bodies on thefe Coafts. • 



Plate XXX. ■ 



N°. 3. Efchara foliacea, millepora, lapldea^ extremitatibus 

hhic inde irregidariter coalejcentibus^ utraque fuperfcie ex F'g-*--^- 
cellulis ovatis conjlans. 

Efchara retiformis, R. S. p. 31. Reticulmn marinum, 
J. B. Ill' 809. 
Stony foliaceous Coralline 

This ftony Millepora was found growing to an Oyfter-flielly 
on the Weft Coaft of the IJJe ofiVight^ in April 1753 ; and, 

whea 



72 Natural Hiftory 

when it was received, the Infeds were viiible in the Cells, 
but dead. 

Fig. a^ N^ 3. reprefents the exadl Appearance of it, grow- 
ing on a fmall Oyfter-fhell. 

Fig. Ay is a Piece of the Surface, magnified to fhew the 
Entrances of the Cells. 

Fig. 5, is a crofs Sedion, and C, an upright Sedion, to 
fhew the inward Form and Partitions of the Cells magnified. 

Plate XXX. Fig. hy is a Piece of Italian Coral, fliaped like a Stag's 
'^" ' Horn, and called by Imperatiis^ Porus c&rvi?ius. It is intro- 
duced here to fhow, that upon magnifying it in federal 
Views, the outward and inward Form of the Cells are ex- 
adly the fame with this before us. 

Plate XXX. Fig. 2), is the magnified Appearance of Fig. d. This 
^^g-d.D. £j-^g^yg ^^ fame fhaped Cells furrounding a Fucus \ but thefe 
are made of fofter Materials. Their Entrances are guarded 
by Spines ; and their Surfaces are fuller and rounder, than 
thofe of the ftony Coralline, being of a fpongy Texture. For 
the ftony ones, from being plump and round, when they were 
quite frelli from the Sea, funk almoft to a flat Surface, as 
they became dry. 

Plate XXV. To this I fhall add a Defcription of that beautiful Mille- 
icig.d.D. ^/j;-^ called, the Retepora efchara marma^ oi hnperatus^ pag. 
630 : becaufe this has been taken for the Efchara retiformis, 
o{ Rajff juft defcribed. 

This ii found growino; to Shells and Rocks on the Italian 
Shore, in irregular leafy Figures, but very often in the Form 
of a Cup, or Drinking-glafs, irregularly expanded at the 
Brim. As at Fig. d, in Plate XXV. it is made up of a Com- 
bination of Infects Cells, the whole Subftance is regularly 

pierced 



Plate 3SX. 







<A. 




^- j»f' ■'M 












Plate JSOa. ,^ I ^ 



-^\il, 













4 



4 



/fc>^/:/. 



of the ESCHARA. 75 

pierced with Holes quite through, which gives it ihe Ap- 
pearance of a Net. The Spaces between the Holes, on the 
Iniide of this Coral, are full of the fmall Entrances into the 
Infeds Cells, which are prefented magnified at Fig. 2). 

The Back or under Part of the Coral is magnified at jp, 
to iliew that there is no Opening to the Cells on that Side. 

N°. 4. EJchara millepora^ foliacea &' fpo?7giofa^ cellulis^ coni Phtcxxxi. 
inverji fo^'ijid^ oribus fetaceis, <=• «• - • 

Irregular fpongy foliaceous Coralline. 

The common Sea-infecls Cell, with which mofl: marine 
Bodies are over-run, is now-and-then found raifing itfelf into 
a leafy Figure, like the preceding Corallines ; but the fame 
great Regularity and Order is not fo flrictly obferved in the 
Difpofition of the Cells. 

Fig. a, N°. 4. gives us the natural Appearance of this irre- 
gular fpongy Coralline, Part of which is magnified at Fi- 
gure A. 

Fig. i, reprefents the Manner in which thefe In feels fur- 
round and invefl: fome of the Fucus s with their Cells. 

This has given many ingenious Perfons an Opinion, that 
the Keratophyta are of the fame Nature ; that is, that they 
are no more than Sea-plants, on which different Species of 
Sea-Infeds build their calcarious Nefts ; but this, we hope, has 
been already explained fufficiently ; and fome of the miftaken 
Notions, concerning their Formation, removed. 

Fig. Z), in Plate XXIX. reprefents fom^e of the {limb Kind Plate xxix. 
of common Sea-Infe<fts Cells magnified, as they were found '^" 
adhering to the fame Fiicus^ with the arched Cells of the fe- 
cond EJcbaray or foliaceous MilU^ora \ only ibe Matter, of 

L which 



74 Natural Hiftory 

which thefe are formed, is of a firmer Nature ; it was taken out 
of the Sea, at a great Depth, near Falmouth ; looks fmoother 
and whiter than this now before us, and is without Hairs. 

While I was at Brighthelmjioiie^ I had an Opportunity 
of feeing the Animal, which belongs to thefe Cells. It is a 
Polype witii i 2 Tentaculiy inclofed in a fmall Tube, in the 
Middle of the Cell, as it is reprefented magniiied, at Fig. D r, 
in Plate XXIX. When they are difturbed, they draw them- 
felvTs into their Tube or Sheath, which clofes on them j and 
fmk, together with it, into their Cells. 

Plate XXV. jsjo, ^. Efchara millepora arenofa Anglic a. R. S. p. 31. 
'^' ^" Lorka vjarina Imperati. 688. 
Englijlj fandy Millepoj-a. 

Upon examining this Sea-produ6tion in the Micro^ope, 
it appears to be a Colledion of Sand, united by the vifcid 
' Matter of fome Sea-Infeds, and difpofed in a flat thin Sur- 
face, full of fmall Cavities, where the Infedrs have been. 

Fig. ^, in Plate XXV. is the natural Size of a Part of it. 

N'. 6. Efchara millepora^ minh?ia^ crujlacea^ dilute-pwpu- 
Plate xxvTi. j-^^^^ celluHs tuhifoi'mibus^ oj'diiu fere equally &' parallelo 

Fig. e. E. 1- r r ' 

dijpojitts. 

Small purple Efchara. 

This lucruftation is compofed of circular Rows of very 
fmall, and almoft parallel Pipes, of a fcmitranl'parent faint 
purple Colour. It is found furrounding the Stalks of Fuciis s^ 
and the denticulated Corallines. 

Fig. ^, N°. 3. Plate XXVII. is the natural Appearance. 

And 



of the EscHARA. 75' 

And Fig. £, the magnified one of this Incruftation. This 
belongs properly to the Tubidaria of Lmiceus. 

\ ": 
N°. 7. Efchara miliepora lapidea^ htjiar pumicis porofa, Piatexxvii. 
Porous Efchara. 

This ftony Incruftation is often found on the fickle Co- 
ralline, in irregular Lumps, appearing like white Sand ftrongly 
united together. But in the Microfcope, it feems to confift 
of an infinite Number of fmall round Cells, placed in no 
regular Form, only the circular Entrance to the Cells appears 
on the Outfide of each ; fo that, in the Microfcope, it looks 
like a Pumicc-ftone. 

Fig./, N°. 4. exhibits the natural Size of the Cells, which 
are magnified at Fig. F. But the Incruftation itfelf is often 
found much larger than the Size of the magnified Part F, 



L 2 C H A P. 



76 Natural Hiftory 

CHAP. VII. 

Of the Englifh Corals. 

THE Definition, that Ray gives us in his Sympjis^ of 
Coral, is this, that it is a kind of Plant alnioff ftony, 
branched like a Shrub without Leaves, and with no vifible 
Pores. 

Plate XXVII. N°. I. Cor allium pumilutn albu7n^ fere lapideum^ ramofum. 
^' ' Coralliufn album pumilum nojiras. R. S. p. ^2. 
Ifis. Linaei Genera. 974. 

This confifts of fliort irregular Ramifications of a chalky 
Appearance, and flony Subftance (See Fig. c, N°. i). But, 
when highly magnified, appears full of fmall Pores, not un- 
like thofe in Fig. 5, Plate XXIV. 

Great Quantities of this Kind are dredged up near Fal- 
tnouth-, and ufed by the Inhabitants, with Succefs, to manure 
their Land. See the Obfervations on this Coral in Ray\ Sy- 
nopJtSj under this Article. 

I lately received fome Specimens of a faint purple, or livid 
red Colour, that had been dragged up in the Nets of the 
Herring-Fifliers, near the IJIeof Man; as alfo from Ireland, 
fome Specimens of this Genus, refembling a Bunch of very 
fmall Grapes of a whitifh Colour. 

piateXXVii.No, 2. CoralUum cretacctifn Uchemides, 
i-'is- </• ^- Corallium tnaritimmn calcariis rupibus adnafcens. Mor. 
H. Ox. IIL p. 651. 

Chalky Coral, fhaped like Liverwort. 

This chalky Incruftation is found in g^cat plenty on the 
:j, Coaft 



o//^i5^ English Corals. 77 

Coaft of Cor?iwally growing to Rocks and Shells. The Sur- 
face of this Coral, upon a nice Examination, appears full of 
fmall Pores, which almoft difappear, if they have been kept 
any Length of Time from the Sea. A fmall Piece broken 
off, and placed in the Microfcope, exhibits fideways a View 
of feveral Stages of Cells, divided from one another, as at 
Fig. D. 

If a Piece is put into Vinegar, the chalky Part foon dii^ 
folves, and the Partitions and Cells become very vifiible. 
The membranous Part, remaining unaffed:ed by the Acid, 
makes it probable that it is of animal Conftrudion. 

Fig. /af, N'. 2. reprefents a Piece of this Coral, adhering 
to a Limpet's Shell. 

We often meet with Specimens of the green Coftferva, or 
Silk- weed, that grows on the Rocks, with its flender Branches 
furrounded by thin Incruftations of this Coral ; and fome of 
the broad thin Fticuss^ with their Surfaces almofl: covered 
with it. 



CHAP. 



78 Natural Hiftory 

CHAP. viir. 
Of Sponges. 

THAT this Clafs of marine Bodies is of an animal Nature, 
was an Opinion that prevailed fo early as in Artfiotle\ 
Time. For in his Hiftoria Animalium^ Book V. Chap. i6. 
he tells us, " Many People were of Opinion, that Sponges 
" were capable of Feeling, and that they would fhrink back, 
" if any one attempted to pluck them up." Ai'iflotle^ 
however, rejected this Notion ; as did moft ot his Followers : 
Though it feems not improbable, but that thofe, who firft 
broached it, had feme kind of Experience, as a Foundation 
for their Opinion ; fince, if the Sponges (liould be found to 
be the Habitation, the Fabric of Polypes, or Animalcules of 
a particular Order, no doubt but the fudden Retreat oi many 
thoufands of thefe together, into the Holes they relided in, 
upon the x^pproach of Danger, would give the Perfon, who 
was vvrefting the whole Colony from its fixed Abode, a Senfe 
of a different Species of Reilftance, from that which a Sub- 
ftance, not animated, could be fuppofed to do. 

There arc not many Kinds of Sponges on our own Coafts ; 
and thefe, for the moft part, are minute and tender. We 
feldom meet with them, till after they have been long fepa- 
rated from their Places where they grew ; and of courfe the 
Organization greatly injured. So that, notwithftanding I 
have examined with the utmoff Attention, moft of thofe 
that our own Coaffs afford, and like wife a great Variety of 
different Species of Sponges, with which the Cabinets of fe- 
veral of my Acquaintance here are furnifhed, yet I own it 
is not in my Power to give fo explicit an Account of the 

Strudure 



^' of Sponges. 7^ 

Structure and Ufes of the feveral Parts of this Clafs of Bo- 
dies, as would be fatisfadory: And, indeed, this can fcarcely 
be expelled from any, but thofe wh,o liv^e near the Places 
where the Sponges are found, and who have Leifure and 
Abilities to confider them while recent. 

If we carefully examine a fmall Part of one of thofe 
Sponges, whofe Ramifications are large and diftindl, in 
the Microfcope, we find that they rife from many fmall 
Tubes ; thefe, as they extend themfelves upwards, fend out 
Side-branches in various Directions, which inofculate, and, 
uniting thus with each other, form a compound Reticulation 
quite through the Infide of the whole Mafs. In viewing the 
Extremities of the upper or lafi: Shoots, we perceive fmall 
Openings at the End of their Fibres ; and as we trace thefe 
Fibres back from the Opening downwards, we fee a foft 
whitifh Subftance, which fills the internal hollow Part of all 
the Ramifications, through the whole Sponge ; which Ra- 
mifications have much the Appearance of tranfparent Cat- 
gut of an Amber-colour ; and, doubtlefs, are the Lodgments 
of Animals of a particular Clafs. For, though we cannot 
diftinguifh either Veficles, or Cells ; or difcover any other kind 
of Organization, than that of a hollow Tube varioufly infleft- 
ed, and wrought together into a Multitude of agreeable Forms ; 
fome branched like Corals ; fome expanded like a Fungus ; 
fome rifing up firait like a Column ; others broad at Top, 
a narrow Bafe, and hollowed like a Funnel, with regular Ca- 
vities, Entrances, or Apertures, winch are nearly alike in 
all Sponges of tlie fame Species : Yet, from many obvious Re- 
femblances to divers other Clafles of Sea-nroduftions, which 
are found to be of animal Confl:ru6\ion, and from the che- 
mical Analyfis of Sponges in general, there feems fjfficicnt 
Reafon to induce us to give them a Place here with the reft ; 

though 



So Natural Hiftory . 

tho', for Want of proper Opportunities to examine them while 
recent, I cannot exhibit fo circumflantial an Account of them, 
as hath been done of the other Clafles of Sea-produ£lions. 

Of the feycral kinds of Sponges, found upon our Coaft, I 
fliall only mention two, as I have not been able to procure 
Specimens of the reft fufficiently perfed. 

Piatexxxn.jsjo, J, Spon'rta ramofa Brittanica. Park. 1:04. R. S. 
pag. 29. IN®. I. 

Branched EftgliJJj ^^ongQ. 

The fibrous Ramihcations of this Sponge are extremely 
fine, tender,, and tranfparent, of a pale yellow Colour, and 
moft curioufly interwoven. The Branches rife irregularly, 
but upright ; they frequently inofculate with one another, 
and are a little compreffed along the Edges of the Sides. 
At certain regular Diftances, we may obferve fmall circular 
Holes, which feem regularly worked, in the Manner we find 
them in the Webs of Spiders. 

Fig. y, Plate XXXII. gives us the natural Appearance of 
a Branch of EngUpj Sponge, with the Entrances of the Ca- 
vities along tlie Edges, at Fig. g. 

Fip". Ft is a Piece of the Top of this Sponge magnified. 

Plate XVI. N°. 2. Sp07Jgia medullam pa?iis referens. 
F'g- 'Z- Alcyonium ramojum molle^ medidlce pa?2is intus fwiile. R. S, 

Sponge, like Crumb of Breads 

This Sponge is of a very irregular Shape, and whitilli Co- 
lour, growing often round Fucuss and Corallines. The 
whole Surface is full of Holes, vifible to the naked Eye; 
and, when it is examined by the Microfcope, all the Inter- 

fticea 








^^/^#i'#^^. 



Aj 






'^ffAi. 







of Sponges. 8i 

ftices between thofe Holes are filled with other minute ones ; 
thefe have a regular roundifh Entrance to each, and feem to 
be compofed of fmall Bundles of minute tranfparent Fibres, 
that crofs one another, as if conftruded by fome Animal : 
Thefe Fibres, or rather Spiculce, are fo extremely fine and 
fharp, that they affed the Skin like Cow-itch. 

Fig. d^ Plate XVI. is the natural Appearance of a Piece 
of this Sponge ; but in general it is found branched out. 

The fmall Piece, at Fig. ^ i, is magnified to the Size of 
Fig. Z) r, to (hew the Manner in which the Bundles of mi- 
nute Spicule are laid, to form the fmaller Holes that cover 
the Surface. 



M CHAP. 



8z Natural Hiftory of 

CHAP. IX. 

Of the Alcyonium. 

THIS Clafs of marine Bodies is, by Mr. Ray, placed 
after the Sponges, and is called a kind of Plants grow- 
ing in Water, formed like Fungus s of various Figures, and ' 
with different Sorts of Covering ; fome having a gritty, and 
fome a callous Skin, with a fpongy Subftance in the Inlide. 
Other Species are of a flefliy Subftance. 

Ccefalp'inus \v2i'$, of Opinion, that this Clafs of Bodies was 
compofed of the Froth of the Sea, differently modified, and 
of different Colours, and grew to Rocks in the Manner of 
Sponges. 

At prefent, we fliall conlider it as confifting of fuch ma- 
rine Subftances (chiefly the Nefts and Matrices of Sea Ani- 
mals) as are not reducible to any other Clafs. 

Plate x'vii. N°. I . Alcyonium pulmo'nis injlar lobatum. 
Fig. b. B. ^^ Pulmo marinus alter Rondeletii 132? R. S. p. 3 1. 
N°. 3. 
Sea Fig. 

This Sea-prod udlion is of a dark Olive-colour, of a flefhy 
Slibftance, and fmells very difagreeably when it is opened ; 
the Infideis full of little oblong yellow Particles, from whence 
it borrows the Name of the Sea Fig among the Fifliermen, 
from whom it was procured, with many other Things of the 
like kind, at Whitefiahle. As foon as I received it I put it 
into Spirits, in order that I might examine it more minutely, 
being thus kept from fl:irinking. 

The 



the Alcyonium. 85 

The natural Size is reprefented at Fig. b. 

When I applied my Glafs to it, I found the whole Sur 
face covered with fmall Stars of (ix Rays, like fmall Polypes 
of fix Claws. 

Fig. C, gives you the Appearance it made when magni- 
fied. 

Upon opening it, I found the Infide confifted of a great 
Number of little Bags of a yellowiili Colour, full of a clear 
vifcid Liquor ; in the midll of this was a fmall Dud: leading 
to the Centre of the Star at the Top of each. This Sedion is 
reprefented magnified at Fig. B. 

In examining one of thefe Bags attentively, I difcovered fe- 
veral regular Figures, like Shells, in this inner Tube or Dud, 
placed upon one another. But whether they are the Food 
of the Animal in the Gut or Stomach, or whether it is the 
Ovary, I am not certain. 

Fig. Z), is the true Appearance magnified. 

N°. 2. Akyonium ramofo-digitattim fnolle, afterifcis t/^<^i- rhtixx:^!!. 
quaque ornatiim. R. S. pag. 31. N*^. 2. r\%.a.A. 

Dead Man's Hand, or Dead Man's Toes. 

This extraordinary Sea-produdion is indebted for its Eng- 
lijld Name to the FiiLermen, who often take it up in their 
Nets, when they are trawling for flat Filli. It is met with 
very frequently on the Ke?itjjh Coafl. 

The fmall Specimen reprefented at Fig. a^ is exadly drawn 
from Nature. This was taken near the Buoy of the Nore^ 
flicking, as it is reprefented, to a fmall Oyfter-fhell ; and 
fent to me in Sea- Water quite recent, vvliich gave me the 
better Opportunity of examining it carefully. 

M 2 ' When 



84 Natural Hiftory of 

when it firft came, I obferved the Surface full of 
fmall PapHlce^ with a Star of eight Points on the Top of 
each. After it had been fufFered to reft for fome time in the 
Salt-Water, each fmall Star fent forth a Polype, with eight 
Tcjitaculiy or Claws, in the Manner exhibited in the mag- 
nified Specimen 2X A.- 

In magnifying one of the Polypes a little higher, I obferved, 
that each Tentaculum^ or Claw, had, on both Sides, Rows 
of minute fliort Fibres, like the Down on fome pappous 
Seeds of Vegetables. This is reprefented at Fig. J 2. 

In the flony Coral, found on the Shore near New Tork^ I 
obferved fomething very fimilar to this flefhy Kind of Co- 
ral. A Piece of this ftony Coral is reprefented at ^ r. And 
one of the Stars is magnified a little, to fhew the Marks left 
by the fame Kind of fmall Fibres of the Tentaculi^ in the 
Rays of this ftarry Figure, as at ^3. 

When the Water became putrid, the Animals in the flefhy 
Coral died, and the whole Subftance fmelt cadaverous. It 
was afterwards dried, in which Condition it fhrunk up to a 
fpongy light Subftance. 

piateXXXii.N". 3. Alcyo?iiu7n^ feu Veficarla marina. J. Bauhin, 
F.g.i.5. Sea Wafh-balls. 

This marine Production is compofed of fmall yellow Blad- 
ders of a comprefled globular Shape, conneded together in 
Form of a Ball, and very tough. It is found very frequently 
thrown up on our Shores, and ufed by the Sailors as^oap to 
walli their Hands. 

Upon differing fome of thefe Bladders, I found them to 
be the Ovaries, or Matrices^ of our .common Buccinum^ or 
Whelk -J each diftindt Matrix is about the Size of half a large 

Pea, 



the Alctonium. 85* 

Pea, and contains feveral embryo Shells ; which, as they ap- 
proach towards Maturity, diftend their Covering, and iVce 
open a Valve-like Door, fituated in the front Edge of 
this litde Bladder, by which they creep out, and fiiift for 
themfelves. 

Fig. h^ Plate XXXII. is the natural Size of one of thefe 
Balls. • 

Fig ^ I, is a fmgle Matrix^ or Bladder, laid open, to 
fhew the natural Size of the embryo Shells. 

Fig. B^ is the fame, a little magnified, with the Valve in 
the Front. 

The wonderful Care that Nature takes in the Productions 
of fome of the fame Tribe of Shell-fifh, is fhewn in a ftill 
more furprizing Manner in that Species of Buccinum called 
by Do6lor Lifter ; 

Buccinimi ampuUatum claviaila fulcata^ una parte cujuf que pi.^te 
orbis in planum cojnpreffa. Lijler, Plate 878, and 879. xxxiir. 

Called by fome, the Tower of Ba6el Fia-fhell. 

This breeds in great Plenty on fome of the Coafts of 
North America^ efpecially on the Shore from Ne'w York to 
Virginia. 

The Ovaries, or Matrices^ are of a comprefled oval Form, 
and fome of them of the Shape of the Limpet, or Patella^ 
but flatter at the Top. 

Thefe are united on one Side to a tough pliable Liga- 
ment, fo near to each other as to feem to lie on one an- 
other. On the front Edge, oppofite to where they are fa- 
ftened, is the arched Door, by which the young ones, when 

they 



85 Natural Hiftory of 



they are capable of providing for themfelves, make their Re- 
treat into the Sea. 

The Valve that covers this Door, during their minute 
State, is a moft curious Contrivance, to preferve the tender 
Animals from the Sea- Water, till they are able to venture 
into it. 

During their Confinement, they are covered with a Slime 
like the White of an Egg ; which, no doubt, nourifhes and 
pi-omotes the Growth of the young Animals. 

If we attentively confider this String of Ovaries, we fliall 
be apt to conclude, that both they, as well as the Animals, 
grew afcer they v/cre depofitcd by the Parent Whelk ; for 
they appear by much too large for even the largeft of this 
Tribe ever to have contained. At firft Sight, they have the 
Appearance of fomething belonging to the vegetable Tribe, 
and are not unlike the Strings of Seed-Vedels of the Hop 
Horiibeam. 

Fig. a^ Plate XXXIII. reprefcnts one of thefe Strings of 
Matrices of the Virginia Whelk of a middling Size. This 
appears to have been faftened to fome Rock, or other folid 
Body, by the upper Part of the Ligament : Here we obferve 
the Ovaries begin fmall ; as you trace them on to the Mid- 
dle, they grow larger : Afterwards they fall off in Size, till, 
at the lower End, they fcarce have the Appearance of Ova- 
ries, but tinilTi in imperfed Figures. 

Fig. a I, fhews the young Shells lying in one of the Ova- 
ries, in their natural Size ; in the front Edge of which. Fig. a 2. 
is the fmall Valve ciofed. 

Fig. b^ is a fmaU Whelk-fhell, or Buccinum ampullatum of 
Dr. hijitr^ brouglit from Virginia. 







'•' ^fam£<fXi'-/: v//^- 



/^^ Alcyonium. 87 

N". 4. Akyonium^ feu Cyathiis tnarinits. piatexxxrr 

Sea Cup. Fig ^- c. ' 

Thefe little Cup-like Figures are found on the Coaft of tl-e 
JJle of Sheppey^ in Kent^ fticking to Stones and Shells erect, 
many of them together. When they are firfl: taken out of the 
Sea, they are of a bright femi-tranfparent yellow Colour, of 
a horny tough Nature, containing a vifcid Subftance, v/ith 
many Orange- coloured Seed, or Egg-like Particles, in the 
upper Part of each Cup, as they are reprefentcd magnified at 
Fig. C, Plate XXXII. Under it, at Fig. c, is exhibited the 
natural Size. 

While I was at Ranfgate^ in Augtifi 1754. I met with 
fome of this Kind • which, upon raifing up the Operculum 
at the Top, I difcovered, by my Microfcope, to be full of 
fmall Periwinkles completely formed. The Figures of thefe 
Shells are defcribed at Fig. c, and a little magnified at Fig. C. 
So that we may properly look upon this Sea- Cup as the 
Ovary to the Periwinkle Shell-i^in. 

It is recommended to the Curious, to obferve at the 
Sea-fide, whether there may not be fome Animal of the Po- 
lype Kind feen at the Top of each of thefe Cups ; as we al- 
ready find fomething fimilar to this Contrivance in the Sea- 
Fig, or firlt Alcyonium of this Clafs (See Fig. 2), Plate 
XVII). 

N°. 5. Akyonium^ feu Fucus nodofus &' fpongiofus. R. S.piatexxxrr. 
N°. 42-p. 49. f^£.<^.i?/ 

Sea ragged Staff, called by the Fifiiermen Pipe-v/ced, 
or Pudding-weed. 

This irregular-fhaped yellow fizy Subftance, reprefented 

in Plate XXXII. at Fig. ^Z, is found adhering to moft kinds 

I of 



88 Natural Hiftory of 

of marine Subftances, on the Coaft of Kent^ near the Ifland 
of Sheppey particularly ; fo that it frequently becomes trou- 
blefome to the Filhermen, by often clogging their Nets. 

Upon examining a crofs Sedion of it in the Microfcope, 
it appeared full of fmall regular Specks, as it is reprefented 
at Fig. £), Plate XXXII. 

Since then, I have examined fome farther advanced Speci- 
mens, and they appeared full of fmall regular Figures of an 
Egg-fhape, like thofe reprefented in Plate XXX, at Fig. D. 

This Alcyonium deferves a more critical Enquiry. It ap- 
pears at prefent to me, to be the Spawn of fome numerous 
Species of Shell-fifh. -- 

I (liall now take the Liberty to add the microfcopical 
Defcription of a moft elegant Sea-produ6lion, which carries 
a oTcat deal of the Appearance of a Plant, and, poffiblyj 
may be of the vegetable Tribe. But I have introduced it 
here, to {hew the lingular Appearance it makes, when ex- 
an\ined by the Microfcope. It is called, 

Plate xxiii. ■ Fucus marttimus^ Gallopavonis pennas referefis. H. Ox. IIL 
F'g- " p. 6+5.T. 8. f. 7 

Fungus aurlcularis, Caef. Ej. Pin. 368. 11. R. S. 
N^ 14. p. 43- 

Turky Feather. Dak\ Hift. o^ Harwich. 

It has the Appearance of the variegated Agaric, from 
whence poflibly it has been conlidered as a Sea Fungus. It 
is very thin and flat, and ftands upright, having many 
Leaves rifing out of the fame Stem. 

Fig. C, Plate XX XIII. gives its natural Appearance. 

The Roots, examined in the Microfcope, appear divided 

into 



the Alcyonium. 8p 

into fmall clear Tubes, confiding of equal longifh Joints, each 
containing a foft Subftance in it. 

Fig. Ey is the magnified Part of a fmall Piece of the 
Roots, reprefented at Fig. e. 

The flat Stem, and broad thin Leaves, are no more than 
a Continuation of thefe jointed Tubes, riiing Side by Side, 
and growing on together in fuch a manner, that the Joints 
become placed alternately by each other, as at Fig. Z); 
which is Part of a Leaf magnified. The natural Size of 
which is expreffed at Fig. d. 

The whole Surface of each Leaf, feems to be covered with 
an exceeding thin whitifh Skin, which receives the Impreffion 
of the minute, regular, long-fquare Joints. 

The dark curved Lines, that we obferve, at every Tenth 
of an Inch Difl:ance, at Fig. c, in the natural Appearance 
of this curious Figure, are full o^ brown Seed-like Particles. 
Thefe, as they ripen together, or advance to Maturity, burft 
thofe thin white Membranes ; which fhrink back, and leave 
thefe femicircular Spaces bare, with thefe round Bodies ready 
to drop off, as they are reprefented at Fig. D. 

When they are magnified higher, as at Fig. F, they ap- 
pear like a Grape-ftone inclofed, all but the Bafe, in a vifcid 
' tranfparent Subftance. 



N CHAP. 



po Natural Hiftory 

CHAP. X. 

Of Tubular Corals, ^c. 

I shall here add an Account of fucli other Marine Bo- 
dies, as have cafually occurred. And, firft, iliall give 
a Defcription of an irregular Mafs of Sand, which appears 
to have been cemented together by a particular Species of 
Sea- Worms. I have called it, 

Plate Tubularia arenofa An^lica. 

Fig. A. JB.'c. E?!gIiJJj tubular fandy Coral. 

This is found very often, in Pieces of confiderable Magni- 
tude, on the Coaft near Tarmotah, about Low- water Mark, 
and on the Shores near T)ieppe in Fra7tce ; from which lafh 
Place the Specimen, Part of which is exhibited, in its full 
Bignefs, in Plate XXXVI.*Fig. yf, was brought to Mr. E?na- 
nuel Me7idez da Cojla^ F. R. S. who was fo obliging as to fend 
it to me. The whole Specimen was about fix Inches long, 
five broad, and three thick, of a dark fandy Colour, brittle 
Texture, rather light than heavy, porous on all Sides, but 
on fome diftinguiilied by peculiar Apertures. 

The upper Part of the Mafs, which is here called its 
Front v^, is of a moft remarkable Fabric. One may com- 
pare it to a Number of fmall, and fomewhat flatted. Fun- 
nels, placed obliquely one above another, and fo clofc, that 
the upper Edges of every lower Tier are hid by the lower 
Edge of thofe above them ; and are placed fo obliquely, as 
that the Hole at the Bottom of each, which may be called 
the Tube of the Funnel, may plainly be feen : This Tube 
is continued from the Bottom of the Cup of the Funnel to 

about 



Plate XXXVI 




of Corals, ^c, pi 

about one-half deep in the Stone, not always continued in a 
ftreight Line, or to the fame Depth, of the fame Diameter, 
but a little fianting or curved ; and of a larger or lefs Bore or 
Depth, according to the Size of the Animal inhabiting each 
Funnel. Thefe Tubes appear opened length-ways in the per- 
pendicular Secftion at B. B. And the different Bores may be 
fcen in the tranfverfe one at C. 

Upon moft of the Cells, we obferve a little Cover, or 
Operculiwi of Sand ; which, it is probable, the Animals form 
for their Security and Defence, when they retreat from the 
open Funnel-like Part into the Tube. 

Thefe Tubes, as hath been obferved above, are not of thef 
fame Dimendons, nor always ftreight : But in this they all 
agree, that their Bottoms are clofed up, the Animals filling 
up behind;, as they advance forward, by a conftant Appoli- 
tion of fandy Particles, united together by a glutmous Mat- 
ter iffuing from them. 

The Animals that ere^l thefe connedied Habitations, when 
examined by the Microfcope, are remarkable. 

Fig. ^, b^ reprefent them in their natural Size. 

Fig. c, d^ the fame magnified, from whence it appears 
they are of the Scolopendra Kind. 

The Head fe^ fj confifts of three oval Rows of flat flifF 
Quills, of a fine Pearl-like Polifh. Thefe are moveable, at 
the Will of the Animal, in different Directions, and for dif- 
ferent Purpofes. In the longitudinal Slit, that divides thefe 
three Rows, is the Mouth, towards which the inner Row is 
inclined. Each Row of Quills is divided into two Parts, and 
is moved by different Mufcles. . 

The two Mufcles of the outward Row appear immediately 

N 2 under 



p2 ^ Natural Hiftory 

under it, and feem inferted in the Fore-part of the Keck. 
The Quills of this are hooked at the Ends, and placed fo, in 
each Divifion, as if turning to meet the other in the Front. 
Towards the upper Part of the Body are fix curious Feet, 
three of a Side, formed like Fins, compofed of fix Quills 
each in the Shape of Oars. 

The fmall Feet on each Side, down to the Tail, are com- 
pofed of Tufts of minute fharp-pointed fhining Quills. 

In the Centre of the Body is a round Lump, which, pro- 
bably, is the Matrix, or Ovary of the Animal. 

• The Defer iptio?i of aTvBULAR Coralline from Malta. 

S other Species of Animals, befides Polypes, are the Fa- 
bricators of Tubular CoralHnes, I thought it might not 
be improper to introduce a Defcription of fome curious Tubes, 
with their Animals, brought in Spirits from the Sea-coafl; of 
the iHand of Malt a , communicated to me by my worthy 
and ingenious Friend, Mr. Peter Collinfon, F. R. S. and de- 
fcribed in Plate XXXIV. I fball call this CoraUine, 

Plate Corallma Tuhidaria Melitenfis, fcolopendris, te7itacuUs duo- 

XXXIV. in^ duplicato-pe?tnatis i?iftruBis. 

An Tenicilla marma f 

Maltefe Tubular Coralline. 

When I took thefe Tubes and Animals out of the Spirits 
of Wine, I perceived a fmall flimy Bag, into which the Bafes, 
or firft Beginnings of feveral of thefe Tubes, were inferted, 
as may be obferved at Fig. d. 

The Tubes, which are built by the inclofed Animals, in- 
creafe gradually in Diameter, as they rife in Height. The 

outfide 



A 



Plate xxxmr. 




of Corals, ^c, pj 

outfide Coat of the Tubes is made up of circular Stripes, of 
an A(li-coloured earthy Matter in dijfferent Shades, clofely 
cemented together ; and the inner Lining, which is lirmly 
united to the outward one, is made of a tough horny tranf- 
parent Subftance, with a very fmooth Surface. The Cavity 
of the Tube is perfedly round, though the Animal, which 
inhabits it, and is of the Scolopendra Kind, is in Shape fome- 
what like a Leach extended and compreffed : It appears, by 
the Mark of its Feet on the Infide, that it can turn itfelf 
freely about, and rife up, or retreat at pleafure, the better to 
attack and fecure its Prey. 

This Scolope?idra has two very curious and remarkable 
Arms, or iCeittaculi ; the left much larger than the right. They 
are doubly-feathered, as may be feen at the magnified Part 
atC. 

The Number of Feet on each Side exceed 150. For a 
further Explanation, 1 fhall refer to the Plate XXXIV. where 
Figure b^ is the Belly-part of the Animal in its natural Size, 
hanging out of the Tube. B^ is the Belly-part magnified. 
Fig. «, is the Back-part of the Head of the Animal in its 
Tube. A, is the Back-part of the whole Animal a little 
magnified. Fig. ^, fhews the Lifide of the Tube, with the 
Shades of Afh-coloured Strata^ feen through the horny infide 
Lining. 

Sorrn Obfervations on the Formation of the Red Coral, and 
fome Species (j/White Coral. 

npHE Red Coral of the Mediterranean, fo well known piatexxxv. 
-■■ among us, appears to be formed from Succeflions of ^ ^'S- "■ '- 
fmall Tubes, which rife many together, and branch out in 

different 



P4 Natural Hiftory 

different Directions, (o as to look like Stumps, or fhort 
Branches of fome n^arine Shrub petrified. 

In fome Specimens, which I have before me, many of the 
Tubuli are to be feen creeping, as it were, together over 
Pieces of White Coral, and varying their Directions, accord- 
ing to the Oppofition they meet with in their Progrefs. 

B'Jt thefe we find comprefled and flirunk ; and, no doubt 
it is the fame on the main Branches, The Tubulin being 
compofcd of cretaceous Matter, mixt with a vifcid animal 
Subftance, fhrink in and become folid, as their Inhabitants 
defert them ; that is, thefe different component Particles, 
flrongly attracting each other, become hard like Cement 
made of animal Seniui and Terras. 

When the Specimens are recent, we find them covered 
over vvitli a red mealy Subftance, which looks like a Bark to 
the Coral; but, upon examining it narrowly, we find many 
Star-like Cavities on this Surface (See Fig. a., p. 35). and, 
upon raifing up the mealy Subftance, we find thefe Stars 
have a Communication with the Tubes underneath. If 
we view the Points of the Branches, we may fee evident 
Marks of the Ends of Tubes, as at Fig. £•, Plate XXXV. 

And further, if we examine the laft inclofing Series of Tu- 
bulin that have rofe up, and encompafl'ed the Coral, we fliall 
find them of a yellowifli Colour, and not folid like thofe in 
the inner Part. Thefe the Coral-Fifhers find full of a milky 
Juice, which is no more than the tender Bodies o£ the Ani- 
mals. 

The Star-like Cavities, no doubt, receive their Figure 
from the Claws of certain Polypes, which, we may naturally 
conclude, are the Builders, as well as the Inhabitantsj of 
this beautiful Fabrick. 

The 



Plate XXXV. 






^^!? 

v^-0 




■i 



of Corals, bfc. ^^ 

The fcarlet mealy Subflance on the Surface, magnified by 
N°. .1 . the greateft Magnifier of WilJo?i\ Microfcope, exhi- 
bits the Figures of hollow Croffes combined together (Ste 
Fig. A^ Plate XXXV) 5 vvhsch, no doubt, are of fome very 
material Ufe to this Fabrick and its Inhabitants ; though 
vvherein, we are yet ignorant. 

The Increafe of Coral by a conflant Succefiion of Tubes 
rifmg up, and encompafling the Trunk, and extending the 
Branches, is very vvtll illuftrated in the Inftance of the Stem 
and E->ranches of the Herring-bone Coralline, Plate X. where 
at Fig. 5, the T'ubuU are magnified. But as this Coralline 
is compofed of light fpongy and elaftic Materials, the Ca\i" 
ties do not clofe up ; but, at the lame time the Stem grows 
hard, it remains porous and woody, like Cane Thougli 
in Phyfics it is unfafe, to draw general Conclufions from 
particular Inftances, yet the Texture of the fmalf elegant. 
White Coral, reprefented, in its natural Appearance and Size, 
at b^ Plate XXXV. is fo agreeable to the general Tenour of 
Nature's Procedure in the Formation of the miirine Bodies 
already defcribed, that it would almoff induce one to think, 
the ftony Corals, for the mofi: part, are produced in like man- 
ner ; that is, that they are compofed of Tubes, formed by 
Animals of the Polype Kind. 

The Coral above-mentioned is fairly reprefented, as it ap- 
pears magnified at B ; in which Figure we may diflincffly 
trace the Tubes, from the Bafe up the Outftde of the Branches : 
And, on the Infick^ their Openings are as confpicuous. 

For this curious Specimen, with that of the Red Cora}, 
and an Opportunity of examining many rare Sponges, Co- 
rals, and Lithophyta^ together with his kind Affiffance in this 
Vi^ork, I am indebted to my much efleemed Friend Dodor 
yohn Fothergill. 

An 



p6 Natural Hiftory 

An Account o/^ Clustered S'E.A-Voh^?-E.^ found in 
the North Seas, 7iear the Pole. 

THIS I fliall call after Dr. Li7i?iceus\ Name, which he has 
given the common Polypes, but very properly adapted 
to this, Hydra Marina ArBica^ co?'poribus multis oBitentaculiSy 
baft conju?7&is, ^ fcapo prcelongo oj'eoj fufle77tatis. 

This very uncommon Animal is here reprefented in Mi- 
niature, at Fig. <?, Plate XXXVIl. to give us the clearer 
Conception of its true Figure, as it appears in the Sea. 

It was taken by Captain Adrianz^ of the Britannia^ 
while he was on the Whale-Fifhery, in the Summer 17531 
fticking to his Sounding-line, at the Depth of 236 Fathoms, 
in tlic Latitude of 79 Degrees North, 80 Miles from the 
Coaft of Greenland. 

The upper Part of it confifls of 23 Bodies of Polypes, 
united at their Tails to one common Bafe, fo as to form one 
Animal, and appears in its natural Size, with Part of its 
Stem, extending itfelf at Fig. A. 

Fig. B, exprefles it as it was received, after it had been 
foaked in Water, and the 'Te7itaculi^ or Claws, ftretched out. 
During the Time it was under Examination, it yielded a 
rancid Smell like dried FiQi, tending to Putrefaftion, and 
looked of a rufty Iron-colour. 

The crofs Seclion at F^ flievv's the Situation of the feveral 
different Bodies : Ten occupy the outward Circle, nine the 
next, and four the Centre. 

The Captain at the fime time took another of thefe Clu- 
ftered Polypes, with above 30 Bodies united together; but 
this, having met with feme Accident, a little below the 

I uniting 



of Corals, bfc. p7 

uniting of the Bodies, exhibited but a very confufed Ap- 
pearance. 

When they were firft drawn up near the Surface of the 
Water, the Animals were expanded ; and looked, as the 
Captain obferved, like a Nofegay of bright yellow ftarry 
Flowers (See Fig. A), 

Each diftindl Polype has eight Tentacular Claws, or Arms ; 
each Arm is furnilfhed on both Sides with Rows of Fibres, 
that feem to do the Office of Fingers. In the Centre of the 
Arms, where they unite, is the Mouth, which is furniflied 
with two ere6l indented or fcolloped Lips. 

Upon diflecling one of thefe Bodies length-ways. Fig. G, 
I found many fmall Seed-like Particles, in the cellular Cavi- 
ties of a ftrong wrinkled Mufcle, which compofed the whole 
Leneth of the Inlide. Thefe were of the Size of thofe re- 
prefented at Fig. /; and, upon being magnified, they ap- 
peared of a compreffed orbicular Shape, as at Fig. JL \ and 
may poiTibly be the Spawn of the Animal. 

From the lower Part N (See Fig. B\ the indented miif- 
cular Bafe, where the Polypes all unite, proceeds a hollow 
Bladder-like Membrane, Fig. M, which is kept extended 
for about two or three Inches, by the flender, arched, and 
twifted Top of the bony Stem, which is likewife inferted in 
the Middle of the fame indented mufcular Bafe. 

This Bladder feems calculated, as well to raife or fink 
the Animal at pleafure in the Sea, like the fwimming Blad- 
ders of Fiflies, as to convey by this Chanel tlie neceflary 
Materials, which the feveral different Bodies coiled for the 
Support and Increafe of the long bony Stem, a Part that 

O feem& 



3 Natural Hiftory 

feems to be of the Hgheft Importance, to the Prefervatta 
anTwell being of this extraordinary compound Ammal. 

The Membrane, or Bladder, as you trace it downwards, 
1 he MemD , ^^ ^ j,^^.^,^ ^^ ^^^ covermg 

This Stem, wWchis of an Ivory^olou. is Four^.u.. 

SrifcolTt^witl!irfoV:r^\ Ues of the Bafe, where 
fbegbstocontraft, and come to a Pomt, asatF>g.£ 

-rtu Part is covered with a brownilh yellow Cartilage, 
whlh^s^^re^dd open, to ftew the fini(h.ng of the bony 
or ivory Part in the Middle of it. 

Tj- n reorefents the lower Part of the Stem, where the 
Fig. A '^P'^^"/u„i„s to grow cartilaginous; and is 
. Membrane or ^^^ly^f^^^f^, of the sTem. the fame 

the natural Appearance ot tnc o 

that is laid open at Fig. E. „ . „. , 

Fig. /, fhews a fmall Part of the Cuticle ftnpt off the up- 
per Part of the Stem. t- t, n, 
F-„ r reorefents a Part of the Stem twifted, which De- 
„.ee''rf Fo-rmuft have happened to it. when . was m a 
younger and fofter State. ^ 
FV ff is a crofsSeaion of the Stem magnified, fhewing 

the ffvSl femS:cularL«»«.. i-lofmg one another m 

the feveral Quarters. -^ , a 

Upon endeavouring to cut °ff-Sliceof d.Stem, i^^pd 

aaainft the Knife, as if it were partly Stone, and p y 

ivory- Upon 



piatexytvn. 




<//if tmrHNfr tn /r/i/c/i //le r/fa cC^/^^a/ ca/Zf/ (pn////iff>i ^/UK/acf //tf/r /Aw/u/ 



H . xa> ! 




A , Otr MNie truiifNiyi^i/ tn ,>/,,//■ ////■ii/i/m) 
ana ,'/i/a//,v, ,',;W, t/,.- /M/fi/l/adiir^n 



m/At (ha^fo/ffii/Mv ill '/line trjj 

J'^.-A/aZ-uiff/uim/alM .wjii,nru.;/l/^f. 
•*''f./'.;.i.7r^./«,ff,n„.tAW/„-M ,/., /r,^/ 



fa-ruVm 
fAt n't/A f, 

/uM u/i, 
/nli/a/U 

tn /)v/./ <i 



'a^&fmuiAaati. \/Au'<i„inut/A 
« filfA/iilfiiiA i/it'i/A inaiiu <v&iv . 
» U'Ait/i nif mfii>i/,i/i/ /n'ti^a/on t/u 
i.mar /A/ I'luati'oH o/'tAt i/tt /tm 
<rret tmin/ietAAf^/uu n^a/A/ 
j/'r'.i/tAeAni,,, f/,/„Hu/f tn t/M m 
m/.- /i'.,..„„r//m,t f«/;iAjr/[i/u1t 
1 A'///t,i,„//u;',lif^a/tAe tnn :, l/ie 

■:A,:>i„tA.OA.//,:, AA,«/mM ^■- 
V//.. .>A^///,l'A M/iw„/,</Mlm^ 
m/.,AM, „//n>u,„/..,„-a.„.,r., i, • 



/tMat//ri'/ilAi>i^ A> tntu- ny't/u-< 'il/'uiti 
nrm/Jiiuki 'ait /U:j4 am/j6 . _^^__^ 

rii/.^. (hm/Aiui ^i/^'miiu nniu>fia/u</ut. 
aMi nJ^aiAmim miArrfi.) . ,«•<-///. 12. /!',/. C 
, 'ra t/,u-a,/0''m/An,- .•R.t/ir.i,,,,,,- nuu/mViht 
tn ,>Afn-t/iet^'r/n</ < t<'/i/^ii-<f a>fii/ft{/ t>tU n/' 
tAe I ■r^irA.i /■ii/dti//cu//iruji,/tn tAr ///>iAt/ia// 

A,.y,rC.t,',wnf'lAf/i;,,l,^/;//,htAj-,wM: 
'RJk.tA//t'itA-rii/u„'i/A't/u/My^Mim-A,uA'tu/ 
A^//&Wi«i*, tAA*e uvu-Zthtt .tuyj/inn i/At Ar 
n^/rAj , At// air no/i '/nt/fiiAtp /v o/'t/t^^ta//v 



u^ini/A, tAu^_/V/tAi^ M iiiFt'tf. /. ^_^_ 
J^tf. 4- (^mt/A'Tiit aeAttm a atna// ,tttrru.i o 

tye.t(<imM-Mr'/'/.//./,]f.a D.n 

oiA'lr .t/iff/m,-// aA'iir iiiM/myinA /n r)Arr 



T,y,u'ii-o,.,M,i///A„A,/(/'nA//M,/;,n;A 

>/n„rii/i/in)/i,iiAir Ai'ntA.^.Y.. t/ir M/»r 

.■M/tiiyu-t/.T.n,,, mu/m/A'A A/i/A^-tndAirri/i 

r/oin,ii^Hl'tli/i>ll/oft/trirKtAMtA,lAAru-Vil> 

//f^'rrtA^ /naa Munt^ tv/Afiifiatp MfthM 
fi'm/A'fir -^ 



Ihf.tt. /nra/A//tiiai^u/Aimfti//'*/tiAiJAt' OMA 
Crm/i'iuMA.^.^Jf.n. .Yat^in,/ i/nu/iii/if,/ 
i^tfAni- t/itl/i>A//iea a-Am/in)/ tAr>/i,t,At 
(i//a/'tAnf_AfiAWrj '. 

^./. tim/A'nii imn a/i/irrnAmA^ AiTiwA'Ai 
ai'tmtt M^/A/r/t/f>tiiti.tid/ii/^/MifA(hni/A«/ 
(i'/Mt>.fy.&..^G.it/lrtwn/it>/iafn/^nA»t'/A 
nmiiymi,',! n/iWAf rm/AiA tn/f/Atf /i-itA tAr 
<yi/itairr/in-n/^ri,if,y 't/ira/umaA>a/ivc in 
t/mi'(r/A<.B..tAerrff}aeMiAr/n.'Aftryi/iil-An/ 
tAedlAi M S,^,i/u<i> tAiiitiimaAi trUiuAt/ «l 



n n/m./riujdi, ////.Jil ^Irfimiv n/tArAhAi 
Aau/^ f /Atw*( fn/lfiN/iitAti> f/tnit t^i, limtlil/H ' 

oAr/t fA/ir/vitA* tA/tiri//tAtt/fwn/[^^a/ti>aAtm* 
Jiif. S. CvAtibitta/tt^racta /t/rifiaur a/A/ifa^, 
aum m/£tA'/n/^ tWf/>i^ arfiiin.*&n^ IfuttM/ut . 
l^/in^ -^^•'. t ^/ti* i* t/tr tiaA/ta/t*ij^ n^tAit rtat ^ 
eiAazM Oi^rttfttf&taa't-^/MAr// . OMtuW/n//t 
imtt/m^it/A^^Am- i/ifnriirrmAt intAi >r/At.Y. 
/Af tmrtnei^r*trr/^^fl n/tArAfuvr/iai/awArr'i'ii 
tn t&M'iwtAfAiit/iAt^M, lAtitfnnwi^t^iv/4t''i' 
/vtA t*ui/ic6i AyitAtTfiri tA/fktmf tnatttttT^a^m 
I. l^L S«^ . lAl>£imya■m^ . 



of Corals, tfr. P5? 

Upon throwing a Fragment of it on the Table, it founded 
like a Piece of a Tobacco-pipe. 

With fome Difficulty, I cut off a thin Slice, which I put 
into Vinegar, on which a ftrong Effervefcence enfued ; and, 
when the Vinegar had been changed two or three Times, I 
found the cretaceous or ftony Matter was depofited, and only 
the Membranes, that inclofed the LamincB^ remained ; fo 
that it appeared to me as much of the Nature of Coral, as 
of Bone or Ivory. 

At Kt is a Figure of the EncrimSj or Lilium Lapideum ; 
which, whether it may not be the petrified Exuvicz of this 
Animal, is fubmitted to the Confideration of the Curious 
in Foflils ; for they have not yet been able, I apprehend, to 
fix upon any thing more probable. 

The Difference that appears to me, upon confulting "Ro- 
finus^ a Germa7i Author, who has publifhed a Treatife at 
Hamburgh particularly on this curious Foffil, is, that the 
Encrinos has rather been a Species of Star-fifh, with a jointed 
Stem or Tail} and tiie Rays of the Star, inftead of having 
Tmtacula^ or Claws, at the End of each, like our Polype, 
are furniQied with Ranges of jointed Fibres, along the Infide 
of each Ray like a Brufii ; of which the fame Author has 
oiven a curious Plate, with a particular Defcription of this 
extraordinary FolTil. 

So diat this curious Polype, is rather, I fhould think, of 
another Genus, and feems to be intirely unknown to us till 
now. 



O 2 CON- 



CONCLUSION. 

THE Reader hath now before him a Recital of the moft 
cbfervable Circumftances, that have occurred to me in 
my Enquiries into the Nature of Corallines, together with a 
faithful Reprefentation of the principal Kinds, and of the Po-!- 
lypes that inhabit them ; for of this Species of Animals, they 
undoubtedly are. Accident firft threw the Subjedl in my Way ; 
unexped;ed Difcoveries awakened and kept up my Curioli- 
ty ; and, remote as the Nature of my Employment is from 
Refearches of this Sort, I could not avoid filling up the lei- 
fure Hours my Bufinefs allowed, with attending to Objedis, 
minute indeed, but full of pleafing Wonder. 

Many Hints I owe to the Converfation of my Friends ; 
and I cannot but acknowlege, that whatever elfe may have 
accrued to me from thefe Purfuits, tl^ey, at leafl:, have been 
the Means of procuring me many valuable Friendfhips, and 
an Acquaintance with Men who do Honour to their Coun- 
try, and their Species. 

I have fhunned Conjecture, as much as poflible, in this 
Recital ; and, if in any Place it occurs, it is rather with a 
View to excite thofc, who have it in their Power, to dcmon- 
flrate the Probability or Improbability of what I advance by 
Experiment, than to impofe my Opinion upon any-one, 

I own, I am led to fufpedl, that by much the greateft 
Part of thole Subftances, which from their Figure have hi- 
therto been reputed Sea-Shrubs, Plants, Mofl'es, &'c. are not 
only the Refidence of Animals, but their Fabric hkewife ; 
and ferve for the Purpofes of Subiiftence, Defence, and Pro- 
pagation, as much as the Combs and Cells fabricated by 
Bees, and other Infeds^ ferve for fimilar Purpoles. 

That 



Conclusion. loi 

That many, if not all the different Species here defcribed, 
are of this Kind, I think is inconteftable : But that Animals 
of fo foft, fo yielding a Texture, as all the Polypes, yet 
known, feem to be, fhould be capable of conftruding Ha- 
bitations of a Texture fo united, hard, and with fo little Po- 
rofity as to bear an exquiiite Polifli, perhaps may appear 
to fome incredible. 

But what are Oyfters, and all the other Shell-fifh we are 
acquainted with in thefe Parts of the World ? Subftances from 
which one would as little expcd: the Solidity, and almof!: 
everlafting Plardnefs of their Shells, as we ihould from a 
tender pliant Polype the ftony Firmnefs of Red Coral : And 
yet thofe Shells are the Fabric of the moft foft amd yielding 
Bodies, -as much as the Lapidefcent Corallines and Corals 
are conftruded by the Polypes. 

Many of the Corallines feem to confift of a fingle Tube, 
containing a fingle Parent Animal. Every Branch emitted 
contains an Offspring of this Parent, dependent upon it, yet 
capable of producing its like in the Emiflion of a new 
Branch ; and fo on, as far as the Law prefcribed to each 
allows. 

Others confift of many fuch Tubes united, rifing up to- 
gether, and Side by Side iacircling the deferted Tubes of 
their Progenitors; wiiofe Exuvice become their Bafis and Sup- 
port, as theirs mufc, in their Turn, be the Suhflratiwi of a 
lifing Generation. 

In fbme, thefe Tubes remain empty, and a Secftion dif- 
covers, at leaft the Veftiges of the Cavities comprefTed, as in 
many of the Keratophyta: VVhilfl: in fome of the ftony Corals, 
thefe Hollows are fo exa<flly filled up, as to leave no Traces 
of tubular Cavities, except on the Outfides only \ and thefe, 

had 



101 Conclusion. 

had they remained longer in the Ocean, would moft pro- 
bably have been equally effaced, by a fucceeding Progeny. 

It may feem too hafty to conclude, that not only the 
Subftances, defcribcd iii the preceding Pages, are of Animal 
Produ6lion, but even that thofe more compadl Bodies, known 
by the common Appellations of Star-Stones, Brain-Stones, 
pttrelicd Fungi, and the like, brought from various Parts of • 
the Eaft and Wejl Indies, are of the fame Origin ; and yet, 
there is one very ftrong Prefumption in favour of fuch an 
Opinion ; which arifes from this Obfervation, That the 
Ocean, in all the warmer Latitudes near the Shores, and 
v/herever it is poilible to obferve, abounds fo much with 
Animal Liie, that no inanimate Body can long remain un- 
occupied by forae Species. In thofe Regions, the Ships Bot- 
toms are foon covered with the Habitations of Thoufands of 
Animals ; Rocks, Stones, and every Thing lifelefs, are co- 
vered with them inftantly. Even the Branches of living Vege- 
tables that hang into the Water are immediately loaded with 
the Spawn of different Animals,. Shell-fifh of various Kiods. 
And Shell-fifb themfelves, when they grow impotent and 
old, become the Bails of new Colonies of Animals, from 
whofe Attacks they can no longer defend themfelves. 

If therefore Animal Life is here fo plentifully diffufed, 
that neither inanimate Bodies, nor thofe in which the 
Powers of Vegetation are vigorous, nor Animals themfelves, 
if declining from their natural Vigour, can be fecured 
from Encroachments; how canwe to fuppofe, that the Bo- 
dies we are treating of, were they inanimate altogether, 
could' remain fo free as we find them, from fuch Intruders ? 
In fhort, was there no other Reafon to fupport the Allega- 
tion, this alone feems to make it more than probable, that 
the Polypes inhabiting the Corallines, Corals, Star-Stones, 

Brain- 



Conclusion. 103 

Brain-Stones, and the like, are capable of defending them- 
felves from fuch Invafions, whilft they continue in full Vi- 
gour ; which is farther demonftrated, by what happens to 
them in common with every other lifelefs Being in the Ocean ;.. 
when, through Accident or Age, the Vigour of the Repub- 
lic fails ; they then yield to fuperior Force, and become the 
Bafis of fome more powerful^ fortunate Succeffors. ^ 

And now, fhould it be afked, granting all this to be true, 
to what End has fo much Labour been bellowed in the De- 
monftration ? I can only anfwer, that as to me thefe Difqui- 
fitions have opened new Scenes of Wonder and Aftonilli- 
ment, in contemplating how varioufly, how extenfively, Life 
is diftributed through the Univerfe of Things : So it is pof- 
fible, that the Facts here related, and thefe Inftances of Na- 
ture animated in a Part hitherto unfufpefted, may excite the 
like pleafmg Ideas in others ; and, in Minds more capacious 
and penetrating, lead to farther Difcoveries,, farther Proofs 
(fhould fuch yet be wanting), that One infinitely wife, good, 
all-powerful Being has made, and ftill upholds, the Whole 
of what is good and perfed ; and hence we may learn, that, 
if Creatures of fo low an Order in the great Scale of Nature 
are endued with Faculties that enable them to fill up their 
Sphere of A(9:ion with fuch Propriety ; we likewife, who are 
advanced fo many Gradations above them, owe to ourfelvesi 
and to Him who made us and all Tilings, a conftant Appli- 
cation to acquire that Degree of Reditude and Perfedion, tc 
which we alfo are endued with Faculties of attaining. 



FINIS. 



^i'^^^^m^m^^my^^m^^^^mi'-^^^m^^m^mnm^^^^.^ 



71^^ Description 0/ Afr. CUFF's Aquatic Microscope, 
ufed 171 the Discoveries made in this ESSAY. 

u4. The brafs Pillar, that fcrews into the Top of the Box K, which 
Box contains the wliole Apparatus. 

//, The Shank, with the Semicircle carrying the Concave Mirror, that 
moves on two Pivots, at /, /. 

D, The Aiding Pillar to adjuft the filver Difli, with its Lens at F F, to 
the proper focal Diftance. 

G, Another lilver Difh, with a higher Magnifier. 

E, The Shank (fupporting the filver Difli) made to Aide to and fro, to 
view all Parts of the Stage B. 

C, The plain Glafs placed on the Stage, with a black Patch on it for 
opake Objedts. 

J\'\ The Watch-glafs, to be placed in the Room of the plain Glafs C, 

for aquatic Objecfls. 
L>, The Pliers, pointed at one End for different Objedli, or to receive on 

the pointed End the ivory Cylinder A^, for opake Objeds. 
O, Pincers to take up frnall Objedts. 
P, The Brufli to clean the Glaffcs. 



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